Dissertation
Dissertation > Economic > Economics > History of Economic Thought > World > Economic ideology of Marxism - Leninism > Mao Zedong, Deng Xiaoping's economic thought

Study on Mao Zedong’s New Democratic Economic Ideology and Its Evolution

Author RenLiXin
Tutor XiaoGuiQing
School Hebei Normal
Course Marxist Theory and Ideological and Political Education
Keywords Mao Zedong New Democratic Economic Ideology Evolution the Economic Theory at the Primary Stage of Socialism
CLC F091.93
Type PhD thesis
Year 2008
Downloads 1020
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The main content of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology is an important part of the scientific system of Mao Zedong thought. Its many viewpoints are the fundamental basis of economic theory of primary stage of socialism, provide valuable thought heritage for exploration of the socialist economy theory of Chinese feature. The serious, systematic study of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology, is of great theoretical and realistic meaning and surely provides with us deeper understanding of the economic theory of primary stage of socialism and construction and development of socialism with Chinese characteristics.This thesis, utilizing the means of historical criticism, logic analysis and comparison study, in the principle of linking theory with practice, analyzes and draws on the previous studies on Mao Zedong’s ideology of society for the new democratism and Mao Zedong’s ideology of economy. As a holistic and systematic study of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology and its evolution, the thesis, comparatively analyzes the differences between Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology and the economic theory at the primary stage of socialism, comments on Mao’s thought and finds out the inspiration to the socialist construction with Chinese characteristics. This thesis, to some degree, improves the level of the previous study and deepens the interpretation of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology.The prelude illuminates the topic of the thesis in the aspect of its significance, literary review, difficulties in research, main points in research, approaches of thinking and creative points.Chapter One expounds the theoretical origin of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology and its sequence of the formation through the historical review.Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology originated theoretically from the thought how to adopt capitalism in the "New Economy Policy" of Lenin. By inheriting Lenin’s thought, Mao Zedong sets up the new democratic economic ideology. Mao believes that there was the special historical situation in China to overcome the capitalism into socialist period and that after a relatively long period of time of the development of new democratic economy china would come across the semi-colony and semi-feudal society into socialist society. The New Democratic society should utilize all the factors that can provide a powerful driving force for the state construction and people’s well-being, in order to develop productivity, realize the industrialization, and to make socialism come true.Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology sprouts at the period of the Agrarian Revolution. Mao analyzes, during that period of time, the unbalanced discipline of China’s political and economic development, the importance of economic construction to the war, figures out the discipline of the economic policy and the idea of putting economic construction as the central task in the base area, put outs the coexistence of three economic forms idea of the state owned, cooperative and private economy, forms the thought of solving farmer’s ownership of land in the period of agrarian revolution. Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology is come into being formally in the period of Anti-Japanese War. During this time, Mao points out the economic concept of New Democracy and the guideline in the construction of the base area and the post-war economic construction. During the emancipation war, after the founding of the new China, the New Democracy gained a further development, and the economic formation turned from three into five categories. It developed into a model of far and near, and a new abstention capital which got some new connotation to points out the general line of agrarian reform in the period of New Democratism.Chapter Two, in its argumentation, explains the content of the Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology, and constructs the theoretical system.The content of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology refers to the following aspects. First, on the argumentation of establishing the historic preconditions as well as the social foundations of New Democratic Economy. The historic precondition of which is extremely laggard productivity status of semi-colony and semi-feudal, while the social foundations of which includes the continuous increasing proportion of proletariat in the national political influence, the acknowledgement of proletariat’s leadership by the peasants, urban petty bourgeoisie and ethical bourgeoisie, willing and supportive to the development of New Democratic Economy with five economical ingredients. Second, on the argumentation of the ideology of New Democratic Economy. The economical outline of new democratism“two confiscations and one protection”confirms the ways of establishing the ideology of New Democratic Economy, composed of five economical ingredients. State owned economy features socialism, situated as leadership. Cooperative economy and national capitalist economy belong to the microeconomic and the economical intergradations of socialism developed from private capitalist economy respectively. Third, on the judgment of the nature and the characteristics of the New Democratic economy. In terms of the New Democratic economy, the New Capitalism is its character; the key is how to make the use of capitalism; transitional economy with both socialist and capitalist factors is its feature; socialism is its destination. The principle inner contradiction of this stage is between proletariat and bourgeoisie, while the principle outer contradiction is between china and the imperialist countries. The primary task is to develop the productivity to make the industrialization come true. Fourth, on the judgment of the economic system of the New Democratic Economy. This system is a mixture of“strong plan”and the“weak market”, which means that plan plays the crucial position in the commodity economy system. Fifth, on the policy and principles of the New Democratic economy. There are many different policies, which emphasize the consideration of both the public and the private economy, the profit both in the employers and the employees, helping each other in both cities and towns, and the communication home and abroad. Sixth, on the requirements, process and formation for China to transmute from New Democratiam into Socialism. Mao believes that it takes about 15 to 20 years of fully development of politics, economy and culture for China to realize the industrialization and enter into socialism peacefully.The above six factors demonstrate the necessity and possibility in setting up the New Democratic Economy, in reply to what is the New Democracy and how to develop it, and the requirements, process and modes in realizing socialism which takes shape into a series mutual-connecting viewpoints.Chapter Three explores the experience of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology and its evolution with the combinative method of historical criticism and argumentation. After clarifying the local practice of economical construction for the new democratism in citadel and of that in the recovered period of national economy, this chapter discusses the evolution process, the influence of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology, and the reason of the evolution.Revolutionary citadel and emancipation areas are the trial base of the construction of economy for the new democratism, which was put into practice completely in the recovered period of the national economy, and which obtained great achievement in the two period.Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology varies in the fore and after period of the Second Session of the Seventh Party Representatives’ Congress and the recovered period of the national economy, compared with it in the period of defeating Japanese Invasion, mostly for the unsteady awareness toward the main contradiction and economic nature in the new democratic society. In the second half year of 1952, the proposal of the General Line in the transitional period is the turning sign of the viewpoints, which shows that pushing the starting time of transferring into socialism, changing the time plan between the industrialism and the construction of socialism, between the agricultural mechanization and collectivization as well, changing the policy toward individual agriculture, manual business and private capitalism, and also conversing the key points in working. The essential accomplishment of the social construction in 1956 marked the end of the ideology. Since the evolution of the new democratic economic ideology, our party becomes quite impetuous in the directive view of economic construction, and brings about some historical problems for the primary stage of socialism. There are many causes of the evolution, such as the deficiency of theoretical preparation, the limitation of the ideology of new democratic society, the restriction and change of situation at home and abroad and so on.Chapter Four comparatively studies Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology and the economic theory at the primary stage of socialism. The two major thoughts have similarities and differences in economic characteristic, major task, basic economic institutions and economic systems, which have important influence on further understanding and carrying out the economic theory at the primary stage of socialism and are of great significance in unswervingly adherence to the basic lines of the Party for the primary stage of socialism for the next 100 yearsThe comparison of the different understanding of the economic characteristic in the two stages: the two major thoughts both present that the economy in the two stages are transitional, facing the same task to develop productivity in the basis of the laggard national economy. However, there are differences among the aim, nature of economy, duration time and stability in the transitional period.The comparison of the different understanding of the major tasks in the two stages: the two major thoughts both regard the economic construction as the central task, while there are differences between the judge criterion and achieved objectives.The comparison of the different understanding of the basic economic institutions in the two stages: the two major thoughts both hold that our nation should implement the system landed by the state-owned economy and co-existed with multiple economic components. There are similarities and differences among the business scope and marketing method of the state-owned economy, the basic policy of developing the capitalist economy and foreign capital economy.The comparison of the different understanding of the economic system: the two major thoughts both manifest to use the market and enhance the readjustment of the government, while there are similarities and differences in the relationship of planned economy and market economy and in the method of the Macro-control.To sum up, the reasons above of bringing about the differences include the subjective awareness, the time background, the historical condition, the confronted tasks, the implemental degree and other factors.Chapter Five discusses the evaluation of Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology. It demonstrates the systematization, expounds its characters, historical positions and functions, analyzes its theoretical limitation and summarizes the inspiration of this thought to the socialist construction with Chinese characteristic.According to the theoretical system and judge criterion in the academic field,Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology,on the philosophical basis of dialectic and historical materialism, regarding the new democratic relationship of productivity as its study objective, involves in how to establish and construct the new democratic economy and consequently transfer to socialism. As a series of perspectives connected with each other and as a constitution of united entity, through the examination of the practice, the theory, did have a overall influence on the social economy and composes a comparative conceptual and theoretical system. Therefore, this theory has the nature of the age, of the practice, of the exploration and of the instability.Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology has important historical position and effect. It is the original economic thoery which has linked the Marxism, Leninism and Chinese current social situation. It is the guiding idea of economy for the new democratism in home bases and at the primary stage after the founding of the new China. It is the fundamental basis of Main Routes at the transition period. Some aspect of it has formed a foundation for the economical theory at the primary stage of socialism .There are historical limits in Mao Zedong’s ideology of economy for the new democretism. That is mainly concerned with followings, deviation in understanding of new democratism transition and stability, dualism in understanding of the main contradictory and major tasks in the society for the new democratism, unstable reorganization about the nature of economy for the new democratism and so on. Some people such as Liu Shaoqi raised viewpoints on those issues, which were not accepted by Mao Zedong.There are many aspects of inspiration to the economic construction at the primary stage of socialism in Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology: we must be aware that what is socialism before we can construct socialism well; we must be aware of the basic national condition at the primary stage of socialism, grasp the main contradiction and insist on the center that develop economy firmly and insist on the way that develop economy independently; we must insist on the basic economic system that the public ownership is its main body and economies of many ownerships be developed together; we must be aware of developing socialism by positively using capitalistic achievement for reference and taking advantage of it, planning the development of city and country as a whole, promoting the development of newly socialistic country, regulating the beneficial relationship between each aspect appropriately in order to reach common prosperity and build socialist harmonious society.The epilogue summarizes the conclusion from the angle of the research method. It argues that a fact-based principle should be adopted when studying the Mao Zedong’s new democratic economic ideology. The perspectives of Mao’s thought and the contradictory psychology should be taken into consideration. And the purpose of the research lies on reality reflected in the theory.

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