Political Connotation of Market: A Study on the Formation and Realization of the Market Society
|Keywords||Market Political Connotation Market Society Formation and Realization|
This paper focuses on the topic that how the market is consistent with justice and civilized social system. Based on the 18th century European market society as the theoretical preinstall and analysis, it elaborates two basic questions---what is the relationship between market and the politics; how the market society is formed and realized.The paper consists of six parts. The introduction first expounds the origin of market society, and then discusses and groups the historical and the present research on the market society. In addition, it offers specific analysis on the correlative conception, the basic construction, the research method, and the possible contribution. The paper attempts to explain the political connotation of market and the relationship between market and market society both from the perspective of politics. In other words, it proposes a new way to understand the political and ideological basis of market. That is to analyze the generation and the implementation of the market’s internal and operation mechanism through the explanation of its political connotation. The implication of market society is to take market itself as the fundamental way to regulate the social operation for the implementation of the resource allocation and find out the best market network scale as well as the most efficient labor division. Under the market society system, the effect of the network ought to be made good use of to improve the productivity and reduce the loss of resources. The basic feature of the market society is that game relation exists between market laws and society. The relation which eventually causes an acute social movement or a slow one refers to the interdependence of market and society.The first part of the paper mainly discusses the origin of market and its dual attributes. Furthermore, it concentrates on the analysis of the political condition of production, evolution and development, and comparison to other kinds of viewpoints. The word“market”originating from Greek means the site for the aggregation of clan or family to discuss political affaires. For example, the public market that had used to be the place to adjudicate Socrates later maintained the function of exchange of goods and money. Market, as the real exchanging site for the sellers and buyers, is the result of the development of the productivity. The most fundamental cause of the emergence of market is the development of the productivity, and the direct cause is the emergence of labor division. The most significant feature of market is that it enables the sellers and the buyers to get together and decide the price and quantity of the bargain commodities at the same time. The market possesses the intrinsic dual attribute: one is the spontaneously evolutionary inertia; the other is characteristic of depending on power.The second part of paper analyzes theoretical origin of free market“myth”. Since Smith has proposed the market society’s construction, the researchers after him derive and divert many political philosophic thinking and the academic resources to create myth of market fundamentalism. There are types of the construction of the free market myth. One is the emphasis on the idea that the basic moral investigation needs free market; the other is the conclusion that free market is legitimate, since it often causes the expected result such as higher productivity rate, or more freedom. Therefore, natural right, freedom, and morality can be seen as the moral consideration to prove the justice of free market.The third part of article mainly deconstructs the myth of free market. It also gives animadversion and reconsideration about the flaw and negative consequence of market, and proposes the wealthy constructive and the developmental market’s contestation. Market as a kind of social structure is not independent but interdependent with other social elements. It may deviate certain relations and be relevantly independent, but can neither be“an entirely independent organization”, nor performs the“self-regulation”. Market is not established automatically. Thus, market economy needs guarantee of institution and rules. It is also necessary to set up a complete rule net as well as a“peace arbitration”net to ensure the honest exchange. There should be also some institutions or rules to secure the quality standard. In short, market should be regulated by the government through the legal means.Part four emphatically analyzes the origin of the market society. Meanwhile, it provides in-depth analysis on productive mechanism, and circulative logic with realization condition. Since the 17th century in Europe, people have started to seek the internal law and external condition of market through its development, evolution and historical background, and tell what the original market was through the political analysis on the market concept and theory. The motivation of the generation of market system is the satisfaction on the individual value realization; the logic of the operation is the abidance of the rule of the survival of the fitness; the way of operation is the market activity and exchange based on the social labor division; the condition of the regulation is the government representative as the public power to form market in case that the market become chaotic due to the labor alienation as a result of labor division. In short, the labor alienation would be reduced by the interference of the government in the labor division, and the guarantee of the order and labor source would be offered. In essence, market society needs the guarantee provided by the government to laborers so that the operation system would play efficiency better. Market possesses four basic characteristics: the society of the combination of competition and cooperation; the society of coexistence of community and society; the society of the association of symbiosis and mutual help; the double movement society.The fifth part mainly elaborates the choice of China: political market and moral market. The article emphatically analyzes the theory of market society and market concept and unifies the Chinese national condition and the social reality. Besides that, it provides some theoretical suggestions and consultations for our own construction of market society in transition period. The state intervention has two basic types: functions intervention and accepted intervention. Functions intervention, also said state intervention, refers to national and social management functions in accordance with their requirements, take the initiative to carry out economic activities in the market of the limited intervention. Accepted interventions or acceptance of state intervention,means because of the market which is unable to overcome its inherent flaws, the State make up for their deficiencies and intervention, in order to promote the efficient functioning of the market mechanism. Compare to the focus and statement on the importance of the traditional moral on the market development and the establishment of the market system, the analysis and research of the fundamental function that the moral norms about the market is not enough, so the article selects another aspect, and analyzes the problems that how the market sprouts and promotes the moral norms in the market society. The moral originates in the market is divided into two types in the article: the innovation moral and the original moral. The innovation moral refers to the new moral which is created form the traditional morality in accordance with the internal features and needs of the market society, the combination of justice and benefit, the mutual aid of benevolence and love and such moral norms. The innovation moral is not only relevant to the nature of the moral, but also relevant to the structure and characteristic of the market. The original moral refers to the new moral originates from the market by way of the market activities and the market behaviors in the market society, such as the trust cooperation, the tolerance coexistence in the market society. The market original moral depends completely on the market structure itself and the special adjustment function.In short, the development, construction and coexistence of market society are the common problems that the world’s different social systems are facing. How does China win the initiative in competition and cooperation? First, we should analysis and grasp the pros and cons experience of the development of the market economy system and state intervention in the market in other states of and the market society, constantly enhance the construction of the country’s institution and capacity, avoid falling into the traps set by the economic liberalism and abandon the state intervention because of the bondage of occidental ideology. In short, we should not only left from the past in the liberation of dogmatism, but to be a new dogmatism from the West to liberate.