Rural Labour Transition with Industrialization in China
|School||Northwest University of Science and Technology|
|Course||Agricultural Economics and Management|
|Keywords||Industrialization rural area rural labour transfer “new tri-strength”model|
Modernization is the common goal of mankind and industrialization is the only way to achieve modernization which is an unsurpassable historical stage. Developing industry energetically and taking the road of industrialization is not only the core of realizing economic growth but the necessary choice of fully realizing affluent society in China, most of whose population continues to be engaged in agriculture.After struggling for half a century, China has established a relatively independent and self-sufficient industrial and economic system. Full industrialization remains a long way off, however. The Sixteenth National Congress reports that“Transferring the surplus rural labour to non-agricultural and urban sectors is the inevitable trend of industrialization and modernization”. Judging from the long-term trend, rural labour transfer still remains the key factor in the process of industrialization and urbanization. Resolving the problems that arise from this shift of rural labour remains a significant issue in the economic development of new era.China is a huge developing country with a large population. Its industrialization has a specific national context, with a unique governance background that co-exists with a new world environment. The problem of rural labour transfer which exists in China’s industrialization process cannot follow the same trajectory as that followed in western countries. So, based on China’s basic national conditions, drawing lessons from foreign experience, and discussing the factors behind rural labour transfer all contribute to government policy and guidance of realizing rural labour transfer in this area.This dissertation takes the industrial economics, development economics, education economics, labour economics, population economics and other correlative theories, and the successful experience of developed countries as instruction. It unifies the qualitative analysis and the quantitative analysis, the canonical analysis and the positive analysis to explore the characters and laws of rural labour transfer in the Chinese industrialization advancement and founds the“new tri-strength model”(thrust force model, pull force model, intermediary force model) of rural labour transfer and cooperate model. Based on positive analysis to the models, it leads to a created conclusion as follows: (1) Impetus of rural labour transfer produced by enhancement of agricultural machinery’s gross power and effective irrigated area does not show forward promotion effect, but“anti-thrust”at this stage. It indicates that rural labour transfer is insufficient. (2)The shift of rural labour force is closely related to economic development. The economic reform corrects the developmental strategy of“heavy industry first”in a period of time, but now back to the track of the heavy industry growing in the lead, and thus the development of secondary industry impose an crowding-out effect on the employment of labour force, however, rural industrialization draw the shift of rural labour dramatically; in economic development, the development of tertiary industry is an huge pulling power of rural labour transfer. (3)The development of urbanization play a significant role on pulling rural labour transfer, bur the shift of our rural labour is mainly droved by the industries after the economic reform, but has not utilized the scale economics and cluster economics effect, what is just the primary reason of the slow velocity of rural labour transfer in these years. (4) The degree of marketization development and the system vicissitude as well as rural human capital states have the remarkable forward influence on transfer of rural labour. And then it proposes the path-choices and the relative policy suggestions of rural labour transfer in Chinese industrialization.This dissertation consists of 5 parts (8 chapters):Part One (Chapter One): This part mainly elaborates topics background, purpose and significance of research, and reviews the domestic and foreign research about rural labour transfer. Additionally, explain the ideas, methods and possible innovation in this dissertation.Part Two (Chapter Two and Chapter Three): This part primarily elaborates theory about rural labour transfer in industrialization process and practical experience of developed country. Hereon, Chapter Two expound some relevant theories about rural labour transfer in industrialization process, and focus on the theoretical mode of labour transfer in dual economic structure of developing country: Lewes dual economy theory, Ranis-Fei model, Jorgenson’s model, M.P.Todalo’s model, and“thrust-pull”theory. These theories provide a basis for writing full test. Chapter Three focus on history rule of rural labour transfer in developed countries and newly industrializing countries: (1) Industrialization leads to changes in the industrial structure, thereby influences employment pattern and employment choices. In the process of industrial restructuring, the labour shift from low-grade to high-grade industry unceasingly. (2) Industrial Revolution leads to expansion of production scale and aggregation of production, which continuously collects rural labour to city, eventually realizes urbanization. (3) Transfer of rural labour in the developed countries was realized through industry transfer and special gathering during the synchronous evolution process of industrialization and urbanization.Part Three (Chapter Four) This part focus on the characteristics of rural labour transfer in china’s industrialization process, and points out the main problem and crux of China’s rural labour transfer by performing an analysis for the status of China’s rural labour transfer. Analysis showed that: the changes of rural labour transfer basically dovetail with the economic fluctuation period in china’s industrialization process. From the view of industries transfer, development of labour employment structure lags behind that of industrial structure. From the view of cities and towns transfer, urbanization rate is lower than the growth of non-agricultural employment. At present, the main problem is oversupplied labour. But the limited and surplus young labour coexists with middle-aged labors that are difficult to shift; weakened agricultural labour coexists with the shortage of skilled workers and the uncertainty of industrialist in non-agricultural industries. Channel of Employment is narrow, and transfer of rural labour is mainly short-term flows;rural labour flow is seriously spontaneity and randomness and centralizes in the southeast coast, big cities and megalopolis that cause the unbalance of labour employment structure. Social security system is not perfect, rural labour is difficult to leave agriculture, enter non-agricultural industries and blend into cities.Part Four (Chapter Five and Chapter Six) Under guidance of relevant theory, the two chapters absorb the successful experience of the rural labor’s transfer in developed countries, and combine the practical situation of China, then analyze the factors which influence transfer of China’s rural labour with qualitative and quantitative methods. Among which, chapter five found“new tri-strength model”referring to“push - pull theory”. It’s“tri-strength”theory-“thrust force”,“pull force”and“intermediary force”; and then master their meaning in specific way.Chapter Six tested the“new tri-strength model”with statistical information, and established“integrated model”of rural labour transfer. The“thrust force model”analysis showed: (1) Impetus of rural labour transfer by the enhancement of agricultural machinery’s gross power and the effective irrigated area shows the“anti-thrust”at the present stage. (2) The quantity of rural labour gave a positive impetus to rural labour transfer. (3) Increasing of income per capita in rural families favored transfer of rural labour. (4) The specific gravity variable of added value of agriculture to the GDP is the maximal effect for rural labour transfer. The“pull force model”analysis showed: (1) Rural industrialization is the main "pull" factor influencing rural labour transfer. (2) The development of tertiary industry and urbanization as well as the expansion of income gap between urban and rural residents are gigantic pulling strength of rural labour transfer. (3) To some extent, the development of the secondary industry produces a crowd-out effect on rural labour transfer. Analysis of“intermediary force model”shows: (1) Urban unemployment rate has a significant negative impact on rural labour transfer. (2) Government policy has played a positive role in transfer of rural labour. (3) Enhancing the quality and technical skills of rural labour can promote rural labour transfer smoothly. The“collective model”analysis shows: the main factors affecting rural labour transfer in the process of industrialization are: number of rural labour, the level of economic development, net income of per capita in rural, quality of labour, the level of marketization and institutional change. (2) Since reform and opening-up, transfer of rural labour in our country is mostly driven by industry, underplay effect of scale economy and cluster economy brought by the urbanization development.Part Five(Chapter Seven and Chapter Eight) These two chapters point out the path of transfer of China’s rural labour in industrialization process, and propose relevant security measures, countermeasure and suggestions. Chapter seven believes that the practical method of solving the problem of rural labour transfer is to adjust the structure of industry, speed up the development of secondary and tertiary industries, concentrate the industries in cities and towns, and promote the construction and development of urban areas. First is to advance the construction of rural industrialization. Second, we must accelerate the pace of industrialization and continuously adjust and upgrade the industrial structure. Third, we should accelerate the city development.Chapter eight gives the supporting conditions of rural labour transfer. It believes that rural labour transfer is a social project, is a result made by the practical operation of the Government, the community and the individual. We should give full play to the strength of the regulation and control of the main body by the government, and reform the household registry system and the land-circulation system, construct the social security system for rural workers, establish an equal and unified labour market for urban and rural employment. Meanwhile, we should strengthen the education and training; improve the quality of the labour force to ensure a smooth transfer of rural labour.