Study on Plants Diversity and Ethnobotany in Arhorchin National Nature Reserve
|School||Inner Mongolia Agricultural University|
|Course||Conservation and Utilization of Wild Fauna and Flora|
|Keywords||Arhorchin national nature reserve Flora Plant resources Ethnobotany KAP|
For the purpose of making management decision and establishing technical methodsscientifically in Arhorchin National Nature Reserve, with the methods of floristic analysis,wild plant resources investigation, rare and endangered plants rating, ethnobotanical surveyand KAP (Knowledge, Attitude, Practice) survey, the floristic composition andcharacteristics, composition and types of wild plant resourses, the regional rarity gradesand priority attention ranks of wild plants, the folk knowledge on nomenclature and use ofwild plants by the herdsmen in the Nature Reserve as well as in surrounding areas, andKnowledge, Attitude, Practice (KAP) about the Nature Reserve among local herdsmen arestudied and analysed.1. Plant Diversity(1) There were373species (including lower taxa of species) of vascular plants wererecorded in the Nature Reserve, which belongs to222genera and70families. Among them,there were5species of fern, belong to2genera and2falllilies, and1specie ofgymmosperm, belong to1genera and1families, and367species and related lower taxa ofangiosperm, belong to219genera and67families. The composite plant (family Compositeor Asteraceae) plant were most numbered species in vascular plant, it took65species. Thesecond was the gramineous plants (family Gramineae or Poaceae) with44species. Therewere6families with species beyond15, contained species accounted for51.74%of totalplant species. The single-species family were30families. The most abundant genera wasArtemisia with14spceies, followed by Folygonum, Potentilla, Astragalus, whichaccounted for10.72%of total plant species. Under the leve143genera were monotype.(2) The areal-type of the plants in the Nature Reserve took14out of15types in China,and the plants species had13areal-types. The flora character was mainly the temperatezone with an influence of eastern Asia and pan-Mediterranean flora. Compared withneighboring regions, the result shows that the flora of this Nature Reserve had highestsimilarity coefficient with Otindag sandland in Inner Mongolia, the next were SaihanwulaNature Reserve of Inner Mongolia, Beijing Labagoumen Nature Reserve and WulashanNature Reserve of Inner Mongolia. The perennial herb was the most prominent life formswhich counted217species and accounted for58.18%of the total species.The mesophytic herb was the most significant prominent water ecotypes which counted163species andaccounted for43.70%of the total species.(3) There are4vegetation type groups,8vegetation types, and29formations wereclassified by following the principle, method and system of the vegetation classification inChina Vegetation.(4) The regional rarity grades of wild plants in this Nature Reserve were determinedspecifically1species of critically endangered plant,11of endangered species,21ofvulnerable plants,27of near endangered species, and313safey species. The priorityattention ranks of wild plants has been ranked which including11species in first-category,18species in second-category,54species in third-category and290species inordinary-category.2. Wild Plant Resources(1) Wild resource plants in the Nature Reserve may be classified as14types, includes131species were can be used for food and drinks,324for forage, plants,250for medicine,84for ornamental,41for fibers,26for tanning materials,44for oil materials,46forenvironmental improvement,15for timber,20for green manure,54for pesticide,19fordye,38for fragrant materials, and32for rare plant to protect.(2) Since forage grass is the main wild plant resourse which currently used by localherdsmen in this Nature Reserve, the present paper evaluate the feeding value of foragegrass and graded them into5categories with the method of integrated assessment approach.The result show that41species are may be appraised as excellent-quality forage grass,91as good-quality,101as medium-quality,75as low–quality, and16as poor-quality. Theexcellent-quality forage grass are mainly from Gramineae and Leguminosae.(3) Integrated assessment model was made using the methods of Analytic HierarchyProcess (AHP). Quantitative assessments of wild vegetables and wild medicinal plants hasbeen completed. The result show that8species of wild vegetables are assessed as level Ⅰ,20as level Ⅱ,21as level Ⅲ,7as level Ⅳ. In medicinal plants,105species of wildmedicinal plants are assessed as level Ⅰ,80as level Ⅱ,44as level Ⅲ, and21as levelⅣ.3.Ethnobotanical studies(1) A total of146folk names of local plants are recorded. Based on the results ofidentifying the specimens, plant folk names corresponded with111species,1subspecies,7varietas,1form, which belong to42families and88genera. The correspondence between plant folk names and scientific names may be classified as one to one correspondence, twoor three to one correspondence, and one to multitude correspondence. The structure of folknames were classified as primary names, secondary names and borrowed names.(2) The Mongolian herdsmen in the Nature Reserve use wild plants as food, medicine,forage, construction and craft materials and objects of traditional spiritual culture. Folkedible wild plants including32species related to the usage of wild grain, vegetables, fruit,substitute for tea, seasoning, and oil. There are26species of wild plants used in medicinefor human being, and11species of wild plants used for livestock as veterinary medicine.More than46species of wild plants were recognized as the important forage grass by thelocal herdsmen. There are26species of wild plants used in medicine for human being, and11species of wild plants used for livestock as veterinary medicine. The wild plants used asconstruction and craft materials including16species for construction materials,17speciesfor timber, and16species for fiber. The wild plants in the Nature Reserve were also relatedto the religious belief, the festival customs and the natural worship which were the parts oftraditional spiritual and cultural life of the local Mongolian herdsmen.4.The KAP surveyThe results of investigation and analysis on the residents’ KAP concerning the NatureReserve provides the basic materials to solve the interrelationship between nature reserveand community residents. The results show that the residents understand the laws andregulations about conservation for natural environment. The majority of residents believethat the pastureland and forage grass are themost useful resource in this area.75%ofresidents believe that they benefits by nature conservation. However,46.4%of residentsthink that there are no necessary to establish a nature reserve here.64.3%of residentsbelieve that their income get come down after the Nature Reserve has established.70.2%of residents hold the opinion that prohibit herdsman from herding in the Nature Reserve.65.5%of residents think that the permitted period of herding time is too short.83.8%ofresidents hope that the government grant subsidy to recover the loss of herdsman.83.3%ofresidents indicate that they are not willing to move out from this area.51.2%of residentsindicate that they have not joined the related training or activities.49.2%of residentsindicate that they can restrain some other persons’ behavior of destroying the environment.81%of residents indicate that they can ordinarily inform some other persons not to enterthe Nature Reserve area and to sabotage.86.9%of residents indicate that they can educatetheir children on nature conservation.