Dissertation
Dissertation > Industrial Technology > Chemical Industry > Explosives industry, match industry > General issues. > Basic theory

The Systhesis and Properties of Tetrazole Energetic Compounds

Author ChenDeXia
Tutor YeZhiWen
School Nanjing University of Technology and Engineering
Course Applied Chemistry
Keywords tetrazole nitration energetic materials guanidinium
CLC TQ560.1
Type Master's thesis
Year 2012
Downloads 141
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Along with the development of society, it is necessary to research better performance energy materials. Tetrazole compounds and its salts have high formation enthalpy, high melting points, low vapor pressure and good thermal stability, which is a kind of promising energetic compounds. Many have been used as gas generating agent, propellant, pyrotechnics and high explosives etc.A series of tetrazole energetic compounds were synthesised based 5-aminotetrazole. 1-methyl-5-aminotetrazole was generated through methylation reaction of 5-aminotetrazole, the optimum conditions were as follows:n(5-ATZ):n(Mel) was 1:1.2, n(5-ATZ):n(NaOH) was 1:1.2, reacted 4 h under 45℃, actone was used as the solvent, n(5-ATZ):n(actone) was 1:22, the yield reached 44%. Pure nitric acid (100%) was used to nitrify 1-methyl-5-aminotetrazole, the production was 1-methyl-5-nitrimino-lH-tetrazole. Process optimization has been studied through experiments:n(HNO3):n(1-methyl-5-aminotetrazole) is 10:1, reacted 3h under -5℃, the yield can reach 87%. Aminoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate wich can be coverted into triarninoguanidinium 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazolate by reacting with hydrazine hydrate was synthesized by reacting aminoguanidine bicarbonate with 1-methyl-5-nitriminotetrazole.Dimethyl Sulfate was used to synthesis 2-methyl-5-aminotetrazole with DMF, the yields was 49.2%. The optimum conditions were as follows:NaOH was 66mmol,5-ATZ was 60mmol, DMS was 36mmol, DMF was 100mL, water was 35mL, reacted 5h after DMS and 2h after water under 150℃. A new method, reacting 2-methyl-5-aminotetrazole with nitric acid, was founded to systhesis 5,5’-bis(2-methyltetrazolyl)amine. Reaction temperature, time and nitric acid dosage were studied, the optimum conditions were as follows:n(HNO3): n(2-methy 1-5-aminotetrazole) was 13:1, react 2h under -5℃and 15h under Room temperature, the yield was 75.8%.1HNMR, MS, IR and elemental analysis were used to determine the matter structure; Density, oxygen balance, formation enthalpy and heat were calculated, melting point and decomposition temperature were determined through DSC; Then friction sensitivity and impact sensitivity were tested; Last, detonation pressure and velocity were calculated and tested.

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