Carbon Emission Accounting Method and Application
|Course||Environmental Science and Engineering|
|Keywords||paper industry carbon emissions accounting method greenhouse effect Shandong Province|
The enormous environmental challenges issues such as greenhouse effect, global warming and climate anomalies are large challenges people facing in the21st century, causing the attention of the world from all walks of life. Calls for reducing carbon emissions are growing today. How to get the data of carbon emissions scientifically and effectively is a basic condition for the implementation of the various carbon emission reduction measures.The paper industry is an indispensable basic industry in the social development. Shandong Province produces the most pulp and paper in China. The paper industry was chose as the object in this study. An investigation was conducted on the development status of the paper industry in Shandong Province. On this basis, carbon emissions accounting method was given with the estimated sources of carbon emissions. Carbon emissions of three kinds of raw materials pulping process and three kinds of paper papermaking process were accounted by this method. Then it was used to account carbon emissions of different materials and levels of technology of pulp and papermaking process of Shandong Province. Carbon emissions coefficient table that has different levels was given that referred to the national cleaner production standards. The table was verified. The carbon emissions of the pulp industry in Shandong Province were evaluated. Main findings and conclusions:(1) Information access, field research, expert advice and other methods were used to investigate the production capacity, production, industrial concentration, the structure of raw materials, product structure, resource consumption and pollutant emissions to investigate the situation. Shandong paper industry development were evaluated by compared with the national average on. Pulp and paper production capacity of Shandong Province is high. In2011, pulp production in Shandong Province was5949195t, accounting for26.14%of the national production, paper and paperboard production was18250625t, accounting for16.54%of the national output, both of which are the most in the country. The paper industry in Shandong Province had a high degree of industrial concentration. Top four companies accounted for64.55%of the total production output in2011. Shandong Province, wood pulp, wood pulp, waste paper pulp ratio of49:16:35, forming a raw material structure with wood pulp, waste paper pulp as the main, supplemented by non-wood pulp, and that was better than national structure. The main paper productions were printing and writing paper, cardboard, newsprint and coated printing paper. The main technologies were sulfate chemical wood pulp, soda wheat straw pulp and waste paper pulp, and in the country’s advanced level. Compared with the national cleaner production standards, natural resources consumption of wood pulp wheat straw pulp had reached the domestic advanced level, and waste paper pulp to the international advanced level. Pollution level of the three kinds of raw material pulping technology reached the general level of cleaner production, while per unit product produced a large amount of pollutants. Compared with the national average level, the emissions of waste water, solid waste, the comprehensive utilization rate of Shandong Province were better.(2) Carbon emissions of three kinds of raw material pulping process and three kinds of paper making process were accounted by established methods. Carbon emissions of Kraft chemical wood pulp, soda wheat straw pulp and waste paper pulp were871.16kg CO2e/Adt,2104.65kg CO2e/Adt,725.88kg CO2e/Adt respectively. Carbon emissions of coated white paper, printing paper and tissue paper were1235.23kgCO2e/t,1426.53kgCO2e/t,1680.94kgCO2e/t respectively. Analysis showed that the main factor affecting carbon emissions of pulp process was raw materials, followed by the energy consumption. The use of advanced technology and equipment could effectively reduce carbon emissions of pulping subsystem. The main factors affecting carbon emissions of the papermaking process is the paper variety.(3) Carbon emissions coefficient table that has different levels was given that referred to the national cleaner production standards. Carbon emissions accounting method was given based on the table.(4) An enterprise of Shandong Province was chose, whose carbon emission was accounted by both method based on estimated sources and carbon emissions coefficient. The results were50651.02tCO2e and48586.22tCO2e respectively, with a difference of4.2%. The table was proved verified. Carbon emissions of pulp industry in Shandong and the country in2010were accounted by emission coefficient method. The results were6.65×106tCO2e,92.86×106tCO2e respectively. Carbon emissions per ton of pulp were1.165tCO2e/Adt and1.202tCO2e/Adt. Carbon emission levels of pulp and paper industry in Shandong was higher than the national average.