Influence by Controlling and Game Theory on Indoor Crowd Evacuation and Study of Crowd Evacuation in Two-Storey Building
|Keywords||pedestrian evacuation cellular automata pedestrian traffic game strategy update static field dynamic field|
With the improvement of people’s living level and culture level, large-scale buildings begin to spring up throughout the world, in line with the population explosion, accompanied with huge potential security hazards these days. Sudden events, including fires, earthquakes and terrorist incidents, occurred in these places would send the public into panic and cause large number of casualties and huge amount of economic losses. Hence, the study of pedestrian evacuation is of essential significant. The main works are listed as follows:(1) Based on the cellular automata model of pedestrian flow, a control parameter is introduced for simulation of indoor pedestrian evacuation. Results show that the control parameter will shorten the evacuation time and improve the evacuation efficiency significantly.(2) Game theory is used to simulate the pedestrian evacuation. In the model without update, the influence of the initial cooperation on the flow and the evacuation time have been researched. And both the influence of the initial cooperation and the noise on the flow and the evacuation time have been investigated respectively in the model with update. Results show that the bigger the initial cooperation, the shorter the time it takes for evacuation in the model without update. In the model with update, a critical value of noise been found when there was a small amount of defectors in the initial time. It is found that the bigger the noise, the longer the time it takes for evacuation when there was a half cooperators in the initial time. The scaling relations are also discussed.(3) By applying the static field model and the cellular automaton method, a model of pedestrian evacuation in a two-storey building is set up. It is found that the location of stairs has a directly impact on the evacuation time and the best choice is to put them far away from the exit of the building. In that case the interaction between individuals is the smallest and would not cause congestion near the exit. Moreover, the exit flux will reach the highest point when the density of the stairs is0.6.(4) Finally, the conclusions of this thesis and the outlook of future researches are presented.