Dissertation
Dissertation > Agricultural Sciences > Crop > Cereal crops > Corn ( maize )

Primary Study of Inheritance on Lodging Resistance Traits in Maize

Author WangYongXue
Tutor LiuZongHua
School Henan Agricultural University
Course Crop Genetics and Breeding
Keywords maize lodging resistance plant traits stem chemical component yield quality
CLC S513
Type Master's thesis
Year 2011
Downloads 14
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Lodging is one of important factors limiting maize yield and stability. Lodging reduces yield and quality and hinders harvest by mechanization. Now high destiny variety is the major planting type, while maize lodging is increasing and yield loss is huge due to over high destiny planting and various harmful climate. Maize lodging resistance exists significant genetic difference. Four inbred lines from different heterosis groups as males crossed with fifteen inbred lines which were breed by ourselves according to NCII design to compose sixty crosses. The crosses and parents were planted in Zhengzhou and Zhongmou in 2008 and 2009. Plant height, ear height, stalk strength and so on were measured to analyze combining ability, correlation coefficient, pathway coefficient, key component and heterosis. Stalk chemical component were measured to analyze combining ability and correlation coefficient. The relation between lodging rate and maize yield also were analyzed. The main results were showed as follow:1. The variance analysis result showed that the effects of combining ability of males and females as well as their interactions existed significant differences in all traits investigated including plant height, ear height, stalk strength, internode length, internode diameter, number of leaf above ear, leaf angle and root numbers. The variance of GCA of male and female are 8.9578~149.1815 times of that of SCA,which inferred that gene additive effect was more important in the variation of lodging resistance traits. Among four male inbred lines, the combining ability of lodging resistance of Zheng58 is the greatest. Among fifteen female inbred lines, different lines have different advantages and disadvantages and the inbred lines M4 is more exlite out of the population. Among sixty crosses, M1×Zheng58 was better.2. The correlation analysis result showed that lodging rate was rather significant positive corelation with ear height internode length, was significant positive corelation with plant height, was very significant negative corelation with stalk strength, internode diameter, root number. Pathway analysis showed that the direct effect of ear height, stalk strength, root number was great. It is reasonable for ear height, stalk strength, root number to selected directly. The direct effect of plant height, internode length, internode diameter, number of leaf above ear and leaf angle was little. It is not reasonable for plant height, internode length, internode diameter, number of leaf above ear and leaf angle to select directly.3. Principal component analysis result showed that in the first principal factor(PIN1)eigenvalue of stalk strength, internode diameter, root number was larger,in the second principal factor(PIN2)eigenvalue of plant height, ear height, number of leaf above ear was larger,in the third principal factor(PIN3)eigenvalue of leaf angle was larger. Positive selection of PIN1 can improve stalk strength, whole as the increase of plant height ear height may occur with reduce of internode diameter, which increase the potential of lodging. Positive selection of PIN2 reduce plant height, ear height and increase number of leaf above ear. Negative selection of PIN3 can reduce leaf angle, but reduce stalk strength and increase ear height, so the selection should be proper. .4. Heterosis of mid-parent and over-parent of all the traits investigated showed positive effect except heterosis of mid-parent and over-parent of leaf angle as well as heterosis of over-parent of internode diameter and number of leaf above ear. The mean of parents of plant height, stalk strength, internode length, number of leaf above ear and leaf angle had close relation with mid-parent and over-parent heterosis and it’s reliable to forcast the F1 heterosis based on the regress equation formed by mid-parent as independent variable. The better parent in ear height, internode diameter and root number had close relation with F1 heterosis and and it’s reliable to forcast the F1 heterosis based on the regress equation formed by better parent as independent variable.5. The GCA and SCA of all traits existed significant difference except stalk crude protein. The variance of GCA is 1.6989~7.4859 times that of SCA, which inferred that gene additive effect was more important in the heredity of stalk chemical component. The relation analysis showed that lodging rate was negative correlation with crude fiber, water soluble carbohydrate, and crude protein, and was significant negative corelation with crude fiber and water soluble carbohydrate. The correlation coefficient was -0.5130 and -0.4849.6. The relation analysis showed that lodging rate was negative corelation with ear length, ear diameter, row number per ear, kernel number per row, 100 kernel weight, ratio of grain weight and grain yield per ear, was significant negative corelation with 100 kernel weight and grain yield per ear. Lodging rate was negative correlation with kernel crude starch, crude protein, crude fat and lysine. That showed lodging reduce maize yield and quality.7. The correlation analysis of plant traits and yield traits showed that yield per ear was positive corelation with plant height、ear height and kernels number per row was negative with stalk diameter. If plant height and ear height were decreased, the lodging resistance can be improved, but yield was decreased. As a result, when breeders select plant, the selection pressure should be proper. Both lodging resistance traits and yield traits should be considered. Key words: maize; lodging resistance; plant traits; stem chemical component; yield; quality

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