Body language and paralanguage comparison in Chinese and English verbal communication as the center of Japan
|School||Shandong Normal University|
|Course||Japanese Language and Literature|
Initiate communication, people will immediately think of language communication. In communication, language is indispensable, nonverbal communication but also plays a very important role. And, passing by non linguistic information conveyed by language information than the more influential. Especially in the process of intercultural communication, its influence is beyond people's imagination. Because of different cultural backgrounds, between non language symbol and significance related provisions will be different. Therefore, different cultural backgrounds to communicate with people, people often put the non language symbol transmission of information understanding is wrong, or the use of non language symbol not appropriate. With the increasingly frequent international exchanges, the problem will become more prominent. Non verbal communication is a kind of do not need to rely on language, it can transmit information communication. The classification method is various. Among them, as an important part of language, body language and vice. In this paper, from these two aspects, discusses the similarities and differences between British and American China, Japan and led Western English speaking countries in the non language communication. The article mainly consists of five parts. The first part discusses three aspects: the first is the problem, mainly discusses the purpose and meaning of this thesis; secondly is introduced so far, pilot study on nonverbal communication at home and abroad; the last is elaborated in this thesis standpoint and innovation. The second part discusses the relevant concepts and theories with the non language communication. Firstly illustrates the definition of non language communication; then it introduces kinds of nonverbal communication, which mainly elaborates the definition and functions of body language and vice language; the last is to clarify the relationship between the non language communication and language communication. The third part is from the expression, action, body contact and on the distance of these four aspects, discusses the similarities and differences in body language aspects. First, discusses the similarities and differences of facial expression. In very complex facial expressions, the representative expression, are compared and discussed. However, due to the fact the human universal, in Japanese and English major difference in the expression does not convey meaning, but the expression level control. The second is mainly from the two aspects of gestures and body language describes the similarities and differences of action. By comparison, we can draw a conclusion, that is: the cultural differences in the aspects of action in Japanese and English is not emotional tightness is different, but in different degree of control. Again is the various ways of physical contact are compared and discussed. According to the research, in Japanese and English culture belongs to the low contact culture. Therefore, in the physical contact of the cultural differences and conflicts is not reflected in the amount of exposure, but the cultural differences in physical contact, body contact and interpersonal relationship. Finally discusses the similarities and differences on people in terms of the distance. Chinese generally by shortening the distance of people, to the performance incentive, caring and friendly feelings. The British and Americans are due to hold the value of individualism, that person is independent of the individual, always keep a certain space with others. In Japanese minds, not to mention the kiss and hug, even the touch others' body will be regarded as rude behavior. The fourth part is conducted from the utterance intervals and nonverbal sounds of these two aspects, discusses the similarities and differences in the side of language. First, on the whole interval, pause and silence is mainly from two aspects. Because the Japanese advocates harmony, prohibition and collective naysayers, so often use the pause and silence vice language. Chinese sometimes in order to be mildly express, also can use pause and silence, but no Japanese used so frequently. However, English to Japanese and Chinese silence, feel very confused. Because in the session in the process, they stressed that any case must have sound reaction as well, therefore attaches great importance to dialogue wheel adapter (turn-talking) application. In contrast, in communicative activities, although the Japanese like silence, but in conversation process, but very important to says. Secondly, in the non language voice, is from the vocal style and functional phonation in two aspects. The Anglo Americans and Japanese usually control the volume of speech, and Chinese unless it is in serious situations, or less attention to control the size of the voice. In the functional phonation, English and Japanese will attach great importance to comprehensive control of sound and physiological sound emotion, and Chinese unless it is in serious situations, or less attention control. The fifth part mainly expounds the conclusions of this paper and future task. First, summarizes the main content, then clarify the reasons hidden behind the differences in. The same reason is mainly from two aspects of the impact of human universality and European culture was carried out to elucidate the different reasons, mainly from the national culture is discussed. Research in the field of non language communication is very wide, in addition to body language and paralanguage, also contains the object language and environmental language and so on. So I want to put these areas as the subject of future studies continue.