"Cognitive pragmatic study of X N N"
|School||Shanghai International Studies University|
|Course||Linguistics and Applied Linguistics|
|Keywords||“X Bi N Hai N” Syntax Semantic meaning Conceptual blending Pragmatic inference|
In this thesis, we research on expressions such as “Ta Bi Nvren Hai Nvren”,which we formalize them as “X Bi N Hai N”. we use knowledge of CognitiveLinguistics, Pragmatics, Cognitive Pragmatics to analyze their Syntax and Semanticfeatures, the generate motives and the comprehension on them through the methods ofreplacement, comparison, analysis, synthesis, and induction. Of course, we finish thethesis based on the former researches.“X Bi N Hai W” includes two Semantic meanings, comparison and analogy.Compare “X Bi N Hai N” with“X Bi N Hai W(comparison)”,they have manydifferences on Syntax and Semantic features. First, in the aspect of Syntax features, inthe form of “X Bi N Hai W(comparison)”, the “N” can’t replace the “W” to makethe form of “X Bi N Hai N”;“hai” can be omit; the “X” and the “N” can change theposition and doesn’t affect the acceptance on grammar. However, in the form of “XBi N Hai N”,“hai” must be present，the “X” and the “N” can’t change the positionabsolutely. Then in the aspects of Semantic features, in the form of “X Bi N Hai W(comparison)”, the “X” and the “N” must be in the same category,“X” can be definiteor indefinite; the expression should be true or acceptable at least logically. However,in the form of “X Bi N Hai N”, the “X” and the “N” needn’t be in the same category,the “X” must be definite，the expression usually beyond the truth logically.Compare “X Bi N Hai N” with “X Bi N Hai W (analogy)”, they have manysimilarities on Syntax and Semantic features. For example, in the form of “X Bi NHai W (analogy)”, many “N” can replace the “W” to make the form of “X Bi N HaiN”; the “X” and the “N” can’t change the position absolutely, either.“hai” must bepresent as well. the “X” and the “N” needn’t be in the same category either, the “X”must be definite as well. the expression usually beyond the truth logically as well. Butwe can’t regard them as the same construct, because not all the “N” in the expressionof “X Bi N Hai W(analogy)” can’t replace the “W” to make the expression of “X Bi N Hai N”.Through the comparing deeply, we found that the “X” and the “N” in theexpression of “X Bi N Hai N” are very similar in some certain features. the “N” is themetaphor of the “X”. the most important Semantic meaning of “X Bi N Hai N” isneither comparison nor analogy，but metaphor.How do the expressions of “X Bi N Hai N” generate? We think there aremotives on Syntax and Cognitive. As far as Syntax motives concerned, they are inheritthe construct of “X Bi N Hai W”; Cognitively, It’s a new structure which blend from thetwo mental spaces of “N…”and “X Bi N Hai…”As far as Pragmatics effects concerned,“X Bi N Hai N” is simple in the form,vague but reach and exaggerative in the meaning, however, they violate the QuantityPrinciples, the Quality Principles, and the Manner Principles. The reason why peoplecan understand such expressions is that there are common aspects on the CognitiveContexts between the sender and the receiver, and what’s more, we have the ability ofPragmatic inference. Of course, the comprehension on “X Bi N Hai N” may havesome differences among different people.