Study on the Trophic Value of Blood Meal by Different Processes and the Effects of Supplements in Broiler Chicken
|School||Henan Agricultural University|
|Course||Animal Nutrition and Feed Science|
|Keywords||Blood meal Broilers Amino acids Metabolizable energy Nutrient utilization Growth Performance Slaughter performance Meat Quality|
There are four experients in this study: nutritive composition analysis, metabolizing experiment, feeding experiment and slaughtering experiment. The blood meal result from the same blood but with different processes. The study purpose to determinate the nutrient contents of every blood meal and evaluate the effective utilization of energy and amino acid of blood meal on broilers, and investigate the effects on productive performance, carcass quality and meat quality of broilers when 3% blood meal replace fish meal in broiler chichens diets.Experiments 1: This experiment applid three blood meals result from the same blood but with different processes. They were common dried blood meal(CDBM), enzymolysis treatment blood meal(ETBM), and particulate powder blood meal (PPBM). Determined the nutrient contents of them and fish meal separately. The nutrients included gross energy(GE), crude protein(CP), ether extract(EE), Ash, calcium(Ca), phosphorus(P) and Aamino Acid(AA) composition and contenents. The results show that: GE, CP, total AA(TAA) contents were similar of all the blood meal. The dry matter(DM), EE, Ash, Ca, P of CDBM were close to ETBM, and PPBM was higer than them. Compared to the fish meal(FM), the blood meal GE, CP, TAA and essential amino acid(EAA) contents were higher than fish meal. The sequences of limited amino acids of different blood meal by chemical score calculated were identical. The first limited amino acid is methionine+cystine(Met+Cys), the second limited amino acid is tyrosine(Tyr). The lysine(Lys), leucine(Leu), histidine(His) contents of blood meal by different processes. Compared with FM, composition of blood meal to the broiler amino acid ideal model was imbalance.Experiments 2: The test tried to use‘TME’method to determine the available energy and bioavailable amino acid. Tirty robust 7-week-old Arbor Acre (AA) rooster chickens (average weight: 2.78±0.12kg) were randomly divided into 6 groups of 5 replicates each, with 48hours hunger+48hours full collect excretion. The N-free diet(NFD) and fasting(FAS) methods were used to study the amino acid true digestibility of blood meal and fish meal in chicken respectively. The FAS method were used to study the metabolic energy(ME) of blood meal and fish meal. The results were summarized as follows: The ME of three blood meals was similar, and the utilization of ME of ETBM and PPBM was higer than CDBM. All blood meal apparent metabolic of energy(AME), true metabolic of energy(TME), apparent utilization of energy and true utilization of energy were significantly lower than fish meal(P<0.05). Apparent digestibility and true digestibility of amino acid of ETBM were significantly higer than CDBM(P<0.05). The TAA apparent digestibility and true digestibility between ETBM and PPBM was no significantly difference(P>0.05) . Fish meal apparent digestibility and true digestibility of amino acid were significantly higer than that of all blood meal(P<0.05). NFD method determination of the total amino acid endogenous loss was very significantly higher than the FAS method determination(P<0.01). Endogenous Arginie, Threonine, Cystine, Tyrosine loss determined by NFD method were similar to those determined by FAS method(P>0.05). The other endogenous amino acid losses determined by NDF method were very significantly(P<0.01) or significantly(P<0.05) higher than those of FAS method. The enzymolysis to CDBM did nothing to the ME and its utilization, but raised the bioavailable total amino acid.Experiments 3: It was carried out to study the effect of different processes blood meal diets replace fish meal on the growing performance of broiler chickens. A total of 288 1-day-old robust Arbor Acres broilers were purchased, then randomly divided into 4 treaments of 6 replicates, 12 chickens in each replicate. A corn-soybean with 3% fish meal diet was formulated as Treatment 1. 3% CDBM, ETBM and PPBM respectively instead of fish meal in other experimental group were Treatment 2, 3, 4. This feeding experiment continued 6 weeks. The results showed that: feeding broilers with 3% CDBM replaced FM reduced the average daily gain(ADG), feed/gain ratio(F/G) significantly(P<0.05), but raised the average daily feed intake(ADFI)(P<0.05). Feeding with 3% ETBM or PPBM diets, increased significantly the ADG of broilers compared with the 3% fish meal diet, but the ADFI and F/G were closed to the fish meal diet(P>0.05). The experiment indicated that 3%ETBM and PPBM can replace all fish meal in broilers diet. The replacement would get the same growth performance compared with fish meal. Blood meal with enzymolysis had improwing its effect on feeding in some way.Experiments 4: This experiment was used to study the effects on slaughtered performance and muscle quality when feeding broilers blood meal of different processes in diets. In the 42 days, chooseing 1 broiler from each treatment replicate, a total of twenty-four broilers were slaughtered. To recorde the live weight, carcass weight, carcass net weight, crureus weight, pectorales weight of each chicken. Dissected the left chest and thigh muscle, keep for determinating the muscle drip loss, pH value of 0.5h and 24h, CP, EE, Ash, Ca, P and amino acid composition. The results summarized as follows. Compared with the FM group, the slaughter performance and nutrient including CP, EE, Ash, P, Ca contents of the all the blood meal treatment group, were no significantly different(P>0.05). There was no significantly difference(P>0.05) when 3% FM were replaced by CDBM, ETBM or PPBM on muscle drip loss, pH value of chest muscle and thigh muscle. Feeding with the same diet, the thigh muscle drip loss was lower than chest muscle, but the thigh muscle pH was higer than chest. The thigh muscle total amino acid of ETBM group was a little higer than that of fish meal group. The thigh muscle total amino acids of CCDBM and PPBM were a little lower than the FM group. No matter what muscle to compaire three blood meals with contol group or blood meal groups pairwise, the total amino acid content had no significantly difference(P>0.05). Some amino acid content had significantly difference (P<0.05) but no regularity changes. The slaughtered performance and muscle quality had no adverse changes when the blood meal by different processes replaced FM in broilers diets. The total amino acid content of chest muscle had increasing tendency while blood meals replace fish meal.