Qing-liu and the Political Reform of the Late Qing Dynasty
|Keywords||The late Qing Dynasty "Qing-liu" The thought of political reform Social changes|
In the social upheavals of the late Qing dynasty, the political reforms were undoubtedly the most striking epochal theme. The social classes so, especially scholar-bureaucrat competitively put forward the reform proposals and help to push the political reform ups anddowns and the social changes of the late qing dynasty fiercely . Qing-liu rose in early years of emperor Guang Xu ,whose main activities almost were together with the political changes in the late qing dynasty all the times, and their special political sttus and ideological and cultural attitudes made a great impact to political changes in the late qing dynasty. So the study of the relationship with Qing-liu and the political reform of the late Qing dynasty has a great help to understand clearly social changes , the character and entwicklungrahmen of the political reform and social effects, and has a reference value to current social reform."Qing-liu",the name representing a content has contact with the group of particular political activity named in it, and worked in particular political, social environmental .as a corresponding "Zhuo-liu" , "Qing-liu" was scholar-bureaucrat ideal image measured by the moral principle and knowledge of the Confucial school,and continuing in scholar-bureaucrat as a perception.But "Qing-liu" not only as a ideal existence, in particular historical period, some scholar-bureaucrat called on in political ideals and principles of the the Confucial school and formed political group, offering the same political idea. In contact with the political way of "Qing-liu"—"Qing Yi" , "Qing-liu" as a political group rose early in the last years of the eastern Han Dynasty.In fact ,the student of the eastern Han Dynasty , "Qing-liu" of the last years of Tang Dynasty ,the insurgents of the southern Song Dynasty and "Dong Lin party" were true "Qing-liu"But in late Qing dynasty, because of the social nature difference , "Qing-liu" have a different generations with previous similar .In the period of late Qing dynasty, "Qing-liu" as political language the meaning was clear, but when people of that time and then some novelists ,anecdotes exaggerated and overstated, this concept had become very blurred and the name diversified ,the specific number blurred . In that time ,who was brave enogh to offer advice, who may be sticked on a "Qing-liu" label.Although there are many kinds of talkings to "Qing-liu", there is a agreement to the time of the rise ,the way of activities, the main representative, the chief men, and other basic information of "Qing-liu". the rise of "Qing-liu" in the late Qing dynasty was mainly because of the open of right to speak out, but also contact with the power struggle in parace and the struggle of minister who were clique,.they were power tools, but they wondered grils in political, forming a considerable political power in the period of late Qing dynasty. "Qing-liu" payed attention to reputation,discussed politic,criticized ministers. In foreign relations, they were tough, positively advising the war, and produced a great effect to the politic of late Qing dynasty.As a great political group ,Qing-liu were active in the political arena and affected the reforms of the late Qing dynasty,but their reform ideas was grasped by their thoughts."Qing-liu" were scholars of the traditional culture and acceded the essence of confucianism naturly—Jingshi Zhiyong .It’s view of change directly established their reform basis,so they had the thought of practising.After all , "Qing-liu" was deeply effected by traditional ideology and the old concept of defending traditional moral principles settled their basic framework of political reform, so they were used to find "the prescreption " for curing the country. both emphasizing practice and defending traditional moral principles, the character of "Qing-liu" decided their contradictory and clinging thought to the political changesIn fact ,the reforms of the late Qing dynasty was a movement of learning western countrri .Chinese learned western advanced technique and culture because of china being defeated by western strong countries again and again. while the trend of thought was widespread and it was practised by Westernization Group, as traditional scholar-bureaucrat "Qing-liu" who guarded old culture position ,replied western force in addition to the doctrine of confucius and mencius.Because of the traditional idea of defending Yi person , "Qing-liu" opposed Westernization Group for learning "foreign persons" ,when they just rose. Largely in the 1980s, as western culture was known to man step by step, especially some key pepole "Qing-liu" going to other provincies for officials ,they knew that the old ways could settled practice problem ,so their thought began to change and looked into foreign affairs . In their view, the western technique and culture could be incorporated into the confucianism as a complementarity and they thought that abide by the confucian way ,too.So they put forward many ideas about learning western minitary , economy and education based on the idea of insist ing traditional basic system and choosing something western to learn.As Westernization Group , "Qing-liu" advised learned western affairs ,but there were differences both them . "Qing-liu" attacked Westernization Group because of their corruption and inefficiency, especially their foreign policy of compromise. After the Sino-Japanese War of 1894-1895,stimulated by the severely national crisis, the demands of reform was very strong voice, and learning advanced science and technology and western cultures no longer was considered a action of learning Yi person, and was a way of rescuing the country.this was generally recognized by scholar-bureaucratIn the great clamour voice of demanding political reform, amid the real consideration of strong and resisting invasion , "Qing-liu" called reform and put forward many proposals, some even touched the edge of the system.To promote political changes smoothly, "Qing-liu" looked Weixin Group for fellowtraveler and recommended , protected them ,and collabrated with them.because of their very big difference in the cultue idea , "Qing-liu" controled the reform in the feudal fundamental political system range,so they cannot accept the ultra refom ideas of Weixin Group.In the reform process and content, Weixin Group advised a reform greatly and speedly, but "Qing-liu" suggested change gradually and diminutivly, and disagreed kang You Wei’s the science of "Weijing Gaizhi ",so they had difference.the two gradually appeared. "Qing-liu"clustered around Guangxu Emperor to win the political autonomy from Cixi though reform, but owing to the disparity of strength, "Qing-liu" were pushed aside by Cixi looking they being the party shield of Weixin Group.But Qing-liu didn’t always defeated the tradition to death .In view of nation crises,they beagan to change their ideas ,and when they understood the western society deeply.they thought the old institution should be change ,too.Zhang zhi dong and Zhang jian ,they were the representive of Qing-liu ,though their thought and figure were changed in Yang Wu and Wei Xin feform period ,but they still had the trait of Qing-liu .They were very active and their reform ideas were different from past .When the time has just entered the twentieth century, the Eight-Power allied forces cruly aggress against china, forced to sign the treaty of 1901. After being inflicted heavy losses ,Qing government promulgated imperial edict ,so the reform in the late Qing dynasty began with difficulties. Zhang Zhi Dong who had been experienced , peep out the true intention of court after a frequent exchanges of correspondence, and recruited a group of "Qing-liu" writing the memorial to the throne.He contacted the viceroy of liangjiang Liu Kun Yi to deliveried the memorial to the throne "Jiangchu Huizou reform San Zhe""San Zhe" about imperial examination , administrative policy, legal and economic regulation, was related to reform the system itself, but primarily the reprint of the " Quan Xue Pian " and emphersizing the old culture of " Zhongtixiyong. zhang jian, who always said that he fell behind all the people ,changed greatly after he he travelled from japan in 1903, and changed dramatically, known to the constituent assembly could save the country .From then on ,he began to start actively in constitutional government.Because Qing government was lack of sincere , constitutional government finally defeaded.In short, "Qing-liu" were sense of national crisis to proposed political change, and its own uniqueness decided the feature of their political change mind. the aim for political change was togo after strong and resisting invasion, but they hadn’t achieve that goal finally.from analysing its reason , we can be provided profound enlightenment.