Dissertation
Dissertation > Agricultural Sciences > Aquaculture, fisheries > Aquaculture technology > Aquatic animal feed nutrition > Bait the basis of science

The Effect of Vitamin E and Vitamin C on Growth Performance, Non-specific Immune Response for Cobia, Rachycentron Canadum

Author WangLiGai
Tutor ZhouQiCun
School Guangdong Ocean University
Course Aquaculture
Keywords Cobia(Rachycentron canadum) vitaminC vitaminE Growth performance non-specific immune MDA
CLC S963.1
Type Master's thesis
Year 2011
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In the present study,feeding trials were conducted to determine the effect of dietary vitamin C and E on growth performance,non-specific immune response and MDA for cobia (Rachycentron canadum). The results can be briefly summarized as follows:1. An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth performance, non-specfic immune response and oxidation resistance of cobia(Rachycentron canadum) fed with different levels vitamin E in the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets(approximately 45.0% crude protein and 10.0%crude lipid).The practical basal diet was supplemented with 0,10,20,30,40,60,120mg vitamin E kg/diet as all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate,designated as E1,E2,E3,E4,E5,E6,E7, respectively. The analyzed vitamin E contents of the test diets were 0,13.2,23.1,31.9,45.7,61.2,124mg/kg diet for E1,E2,E3,E4,E5,E6,E7,respectively.The initial average weight of fish is 6.08g. In present study, The results showed that the SGR and FE of fish fed with vitamin E supplemented diets were significantly higher than those fed with non-vitamin E supplemented diet(p<0.05),however,no significant differences were found among the vitamin E supplemented diets.The fish fed with non-vitamin E supplemented diet had significantly (p<0.05)lower survival compared to those fed with vitamin E supplemented diets.The result analyzed on the liver of cobia showed that the accumulation of vitamin E in liver was in positive correlation with the addition dosage of vitamin E in diet;The concentrations of MDA in liver were decreased significantly with the vitamin E addition in diets(p<0.05).The result analyzed on the immune parameters showed that the activities of serum lysozyme and superoxide dismutase (SOD)in fish fed with vitamin E supplemented diets were significantly higher than those fed with non-vitamin E supplemented diet(p<0.05). However,the serum AKP activities were not significantly affected by the vitamin E addition in diets,no significant differences were observed among the diets. The optimum adding amount of vitamin E in cobia diets was 13.2mg/kg diet based on the growth performance and the optimum adding amount of vitamin E in cobia diets was 61.2mg/kg diet based on the serum lysozyme and superoxide dismutase of non-specific immune parameters. 2.An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate growth performance, blood parameters and non-specfic immune response of cobia(Rachycentron canadum) fed with different levels vitamin C in the isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets(approximately 45.0% crude protein,and 10.0%crude lipid).The practical basal diet was supplemented with 0,12.5,25,50,100,200,400mg vitamin C kg/diet as L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate Mg ,designated as C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7, respectively. The analyzed vitamin C contents of the test diets were 0,13.6,27.2, 54.4, 96.6, 193.4, 386.5mg/kg diet for C1,C2,C3,C4,C5,C6,C7, respectively.The initial average weight of fish is 5.46g.In present study,The results showed that typical deficiency signs such as spinal deformation and body nigrescence were observed in the fish fed with the non-vitamin C supplemented diet,however,the fish fed the vitamin C supplemented diets did not display any deficiency signs.The fish fed with non-vitamin C supplemented diets had significantly lower survival compared to those fed with vitamin C supplemented diets(p<0.05).The FE、SGR of fish fed with vitamin C supplemented diets were significantly higher than those fed with non-vitamin C supplemented die(tp<0.05),however,no significantly differences were observed among the vitamin C supplemented diets.Significantly differences were observed in the morphological index such as condition factor(CF) and viscerosomatic index(VSI) of cobia,The condition factor(CF) of fish fed with non-vitamin C supplemented diet was significantly lower than that fed with C5 and C6 diets ( p<0.05 ) .The viscerosomatic(VSI)of fish fed with non-vitamin C supplemented diet was significantly decreased compared with C2 and C3 diets(p<0.05).No significantly differences were found in hepatosomatic(HSI) fed with all the diets.The result analyzed on the blood parameters showed that the concentrations of hemoglobin and total protein were not significantly affected by the vitamin C addition in diets,however,The hematocrit,red blood cell count and the glucose were significantly affected by the vitamin C additon in diets(p<0.05).The result analyzed on the concentration of ascorbic acid in liver showed that ascorbic acid concentrations in liver significantly increased with the increased vitamin C supplementation in the diets.The result analysed on the non-specific immune parameters showed that the activities of serum lysozyme,serum SOD and serum AKP were significantly affected by the vitamin C addition in diets. The serum lysozyme activity of fish fed with C3 diet was significantly higher than that fed with C6 die(tp<0.05).The serum SOD activity of fish fed C1,C7 diets was significantly lower than that fed with C4 diet,however,the serum AKP activity fed with C5 was significantly higher than that fed with diets with the vitamin C addition less than 96.6mg/kg diets(p<0.05).The optimum adding amount of vitamin C in cobia diets was 13.6mg/kg diet based on the growth performance and the optimum adding amount of vitamin C in cobia diets was 27.2mg/kg diet based on the non-specific immune parameters.3.An 8-week feeding trial was conducted to evaluate the interaction between vitamins C and E affects growth performance,non-specfic immune response and oxidation resistance of cobia(Rachycentron canadum).Six isonitrogenous and isoenergetic diets(2×3)(approximately 45.0% crude protein,and 10.0%crude lipid) were designed in which vitamin E adding amount were 0mg/kg diet and 50mg/kg diet as all-rac-α-tocopheryl acetate and vitamin C adding amount were 12.5mg/kg diet, 50mg/kg diet and 200mg/kg diet as L-ascorbyl-2-monophosphate Mg ,designated as -E+C1,-E+C2,-E+C3, +E+C1, +E+C2,+E+C3,respectively. The analyzed vitamin E and C contents of the test diets were 0,12.94mg/kg diet;0,48.3mg kg/diet;0,203.8mg/ kg diet;51,13.3mg/kg diet;49.2,53.2mg/kg diet;51.7,197.3mg/kg diet for-E+C1, -E+C2, -E+C3, +E+C1, +E+C2,+E+C3,respectively.The initial average weight of fish is 4.05g.In the present study,the results analyzed on growth performance showed that the survival of fish fed with -E+C3 diet and all vitamin E supplemented diets were significantly higher than that fed with -E+C1,-E+C2 diets.The weight gain of fish fed with all vitamin E supplemented diets were significantly higher than that fed with -E+C1,-E+C2 diets(p<0.05).The SGR was not affected by the vitamins C and E addition in diets.The morphological index of cobia such as viserosomatic index(VSI)and condition factor(CF) were not significantly affected by the vitamins C and E addition in diets,however,hepatosomatic(HSI) was significantly affected.The result analysed on the blood parameters showed that red blood cell count,hemoglobin, hematocrit,glucose and triglyceride were significantly affected by the vitamins C and E addition in the diets(p<0.05). The result analyzed on MDA in liver showed that the concentrations of MDA in liver of fish fed -E+C3 and the vitamin E supplemented diets were significantly lower than those fed with the -E+C1 , -E+C2 diets(p<0.05).The result analysed on the non-specific immune parameters showed that the respiratory burst activity of head kidney and serum SOD activity were significantly affected by the vitamins C and E addition in diets(p<0.05).The respiratory burst activity of head kidney fed with the +E+C1 diet was the highest.The activities of serum SOD fed with -E+C3,+E+C1,+E+C2 diets were significantly higher than those fed with–E+C2 and +E+C3 diets(p<0.05). The optimum vitamin E and vitamin C adding amount in Cobia diet were 0mg/kg diet ,203.8mg/kg diet and 51mg/kg diet,13.3mg/kg diet based on growth performance and non-specific immune performance.And the interaction between vitamins C and E were also proved in the present study.

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