Study on Di Xian’s Revitalization of Tian Tai
|Keywords||Tiantai Dixian Buddhist Philosophy Social practice|
The resurgence of Tiantai happened during the late Qing Dynasty and early of the Republic ofChina when China was undergoing its social transformation, ideological polarization, sharp ethnic conflictscaused by the imperialist cultural invasion. Longly influenced by the Chinese feudal society, the templeeconomy and culture of Tiantai Zong all carried a feudal characteristic and another reason is the specialsocial environment, Tiantai Zong was confronted with many serious problems and desperately in need ofreformation. It was on this occasion that Dixian revitalized Tiantai.During the resurgence of Tiantai Zong, Dixian focused on the explanation of the Buddhistphilosophy and the social practice of pragmatic. In Buddhist philosophy,due to the influence of Real,eternal Idealism of the Chinese Buddhism and Awakening of Mahayana Faith, Dixian actively protectedthe Tiantai with the aim of Tiantai’s Buddhanature including both good and evil, and explained the tiantai’sBuddhanature including both good and evil of Buddha-nature Treatise of rationality with doubleessence-function relationship. It advocated the idea of coordination the Judgment of Teaching MoralMetaphysics Doctrine and the perfect-fusing all sectarian to form a basic experience of Dixian RevitalizedTiantai. In addition, in his Philosophy of Samathavipa Syana, it more emphasized the role of the sixconsciousness. The six consciousness as the key to practice Samathavipa Syana up to tattvasya-laks!an!am.Because of a great impact of Shurangama Sutra in modern Chinese Buddhism, its rich ideological contentwas very tolerant. The outstanding contributions to Buddhist theory and practice level won the attention ofsectarian, and also won the love and attention of Various sects of the senior Buddhist monks. Therefore,Shurangama Sutra was the important Buddhist scriptures on the perfect-fusing of Tiantai by Dixian Master.In the hurried retreat of the late Qing Dynast, Dixian gave particular attention to the perfect-fusing ofTaizong and Pure Land.To form his unique Concept of Tiantai and Pure-land, he strongly promoted toachieve management disorder social purposes through management thinking. In social practice, Dixianbuilt temples, and took the Guanzong speaking.He took Temples as the base to promote Tiantai Buddhist.In his life, he explained the Buddhist scriptures for making the happiness of sentient beings, and set upBuddhist education to cultivate up to ten of thousands of monks, who become famous persons, such asShitanxu dharma in northeast, Shibaojing preaching in the South,Jiang weiqiao, author of the history of Buddhism in China andFangunong, editor in chief of the Shanghai Buddhist Bookstore,etc. Owing to theflourish of the modern lay Buddhist, Dixian contacted layman Buddhist to revitalize Tiantai. During theprocess of social practice, Dixian always hold the Tiantai ideas in his religious thought, and no parochialprejudice. His thoughts of Buddhism were embodied in his social practice. With the efforts of Dixian andhis disciples, they made the resurgence. So Dixian also achieved at the reputation of the " Ancestor ofRevitalized Tiantai".The resurgence of Tiantai and the promotion of Tiantai culture by Dixian was a synchronizedhistorical process. He spared no efforts to launch a series of activities to revitalize Tiantai and to explicateTiantai philosophy. Under his influence, his disciples were actively involved in this procedure, thusexpanding the oversea influence of Tiantai. He not only inherited the fine tradition of the traditionalBuddhism, but paid more attention to be mindful of the merit dharma-gate of Pure Land than stoppings andcontemplations dharma-gate. thereby, accelerating the pace of Chinese Buddhism’s secularization and PureLand tendency.The experience of Dixian’s revitalizing Tiantai offers a reference that is worth learning, we shouldconform to the trend of the times,we should not only uphold our own concept but also learn fromothers;not only emphasize the theory but also pay much attention to the practice. However, Dixianover-emphasized the fusion with others, resulting in the chaos states of Tiantai Buddhist theory andTiantai’s over-advocating Pure Land Buddhist resulted in the small influence of its own theory. All of theseare worth of our re-thinking.