Measurement and Improvement of the Efficiency of Rural-Urban Land Conversion in Hubei Province
|School||Huazhong Agricultural University|
|Course||Management of land resources|
|Keywords||rural-urban land conversion macro efficiency micro efficiency thecomprehensive efficiency technical efficiency scale efficiency stochastic frontieranalysis data envelopment analysis cost benefit analysis|
Since the21st century, China’s industrialization and urbanization has stepped into the rapid development period under the "traction" of social and economic development. Rural-urban land conversion, an inevitable phenomena during the process of industrialization and urbanization, on one hand has provided lots of land required by the rapid development, on the other hand has caused a series of unintended consequences, such as great loss of agricultural land, extensive use and waste of urban construction land. With the acceleration of China’s urbanization and industrialization, the scale of rural-urban land conversion showed a trend of increasing year by year. According to statistical data,158,000hectares agricultural land was converted into urban construction land per year from1978to1989,168,000hectares from1990to1999, and the last census from2000to2009counted200,000hectares in China. Inefficiency in rural-urban land conversion is one of the most important reasons for agricultural land conversing to urban construction land so quickly. Therefore, it is very important to improve the efficiency of rural-urban land conversion, and promote the optimal allocation of land resources among different sectors, which can not only remain sustainable, stable and rapid development of regional economy, but also ensure national food security, farmland preservation, and based-land ecological environment. Based on analyzing these problems from rural-urban land conversion, this paper constructs the research methodology on rural-urban land conversion efficiency from the perspective of both macro and micro perspective. From the macro perspective, taking the Hubei province as an example, we found out relations between macroscopic efficiency of regional rural-urban land conversion and input and output factors of rural-urban land conversion by using the Data Envelopment Analysis method. What’s more, we analyzed the efficiency’s varying characteristics, trends, and found out the efficiency optimizing path of rural-urban land conversion; Besides, we research the variation and influence factors of rural-urban land conversion macroscopic efficiency based on the beyond the logarithm production function model, and explored the optimal way of allocation resources that can promote the efficiency of land resources use by coordinate all kinds of resource input during the process of social and economic development. On the Micro level, we analyzed the farmers’cost and profit during the process of rural-urban land conversion in Hubei province based on the cost-benefit analysis theory. We also calculate the farmers’cost and profit by using different types of methods, estimating the rural-urban land conversion micro efficiency in Hubei province and each cities, exploring the reasons for microscopic efficiency loss, improving the farmers’ welfare by adjusting their cost and benefit of rural-urban land conversion.Through the theoretical analysis and empirical research, the present research got the following conclusions:(1) Macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion of Hubei province showed a downward trend on the time series, and the macro efficiency is significantly different among the regions. Based on the results of DEA method, from2001to2010the declining trend of rural-urban land conversion efficiency in the whole region, eastern region, and middle region of Hubei province are convergent, however, the rural-urban land conversion efficiency in western region of Hubei province is increasing. Besides, the spacious difference is significant among the cities. While the SFA model also shows that the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion in Hubei province is declining, and the declining rate is obvious during the past five years.(2) The unrestricted expansion scale leads to the decreasing trend of the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion. According to the results of DEA model, the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion in Hubei showed a trend of falling, and the falling rate becomes larger as time goes on; As for regions, the average efficiency of rural-urban land conversion was decreasing in the eastern, middle, western part of Hubei Province. The scale efficiency of rural-urban land conversion was also falling, except the specific years; we can also get the conclusion that the macro inefficiency of rural-urban land conversion in Hubei province is mainly caused by the decrease in scale efficiency.(3) The macro efficiency loss of rural-urban land conversion is huge, which was mainly caused by invalid input of resource. According to the results of macro efficiency analysis, most cities have not reached the optimal efficiency of rural-urban land conversion, and the macro efficiency loss of rural-urban land conversion is huge in some cities sometimes. Through the analysis of rural-urban land conversion macro efficiency, we can get the optimal way of macro efficiency of Hubei province and each cities.(4) Social economic indicators imposed different degrees of positive or negative influence on the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion. Based on the beyond logarithm production function of SFA method, we can get the factors affecting the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion. Among the seven social economic indicators, only population growth and average farmland area were not significant, while the rest factors including the average construction land area, the average GDP, the urbanization rate, the comparative benefit of land use and upgrading of industrial structure, all have significant impacts on the macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion.(5) The difference of macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion measured respectively by DEA and SFA method was not significant. We used the Significance test of Mann-Whitney U method to test the significance of difference of macro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion calculated by these two methods. The results show that the difference is not significant in Hubei province from2006to2010; suggesting that there is consistency between the results of these two methods.(6) From the farmers’ perspective, the main reason for the low efficiency of rural-urban land conversion is lacking of consideration of farmers’ loss during this process. Based on cost benefit analysis method, we constructed research method system to study the rural-urban land conversion micro efficiency by calculating the farmers’ exact total income and total cost during the process of rural-urban land conversion, using different methods according to different kinds of income and cost to evaluate the rural-urban land conversion micro efficiency. Through comparing the difference among the rural-urban land conversion micro efficiency of three different rural-urban land conversion compensation standard, we got the conclusion that lacking of consideration of farmers’ loss during the process of rural-urban land conversion is the main reason for the low micro efficiency of rural-urban land conversion. Therefore, the farmers’ benefit and other potential loss should be taken more consideration during this process and increasing farmers’ net income in the rural-urban land conversion process is the most important way to optimize the rural-urban land conversion micro efficiency based on the view of farmers.