On Modern Fur-Trade in Zhangjiakou
|School||Northeast Normal University|
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||Zhangjiakou Fur Trade Economy Influence|
Zhangjiakou is an important trade-centre and takes an important role in the history of northwestern and Russian trade. Zhangjiakou entitled“The City of Fur Beyond the Great Wall”for two reasons:one was about the imported fur which was from Mongolia and Russia; and the other was about the advantages of its geographical location: it borders on Russia and Mongolian Plateau to the north which were two major fur producing areas. Beside the reliable support of raw materials, the broad request for tea and silk from Mongolia and Russia, the nearest entrance to Beijing and wide market in Mainland were the provided conditions for Zhangjiakou to be the centre.There are four periods in the history of fur-trade in Zhangjiakou: the rising, the developing, the flourishing and the declining period.The rising period was from 1571 when the Ming Government permitted Mongolia to open horse-market in Zhangjiakou. The developing period was long and developed gradually: the Qing Government canonized eight imperial business and practiced“the system of Bu Ticket”; during Kang Xi period, the trade of Kyakhta began and Zhangjiakou was the only way to pass to Beijing; Treaty of Beijing in 1860 and Road Trade Articles in 1862 made the force of Russia business to be legalized in China; and at the same time, motivated by the interest, foreign business of other countries purchased fur to get gorgeous interest from road trade; The flourishing period appeared from 1925 to 1929 which was pushed by two main roads—the Jing Zhang Railway and the Jing Ku Road. The declining period was out of political elements, such as the break of Sino-soviet ties, the interruption of commerce on Zhang Ku Road, the invasion of Japan and civil war.The fur-trade in Zhangjiakou played an important role in the development of this city: not only in the aspect of economy, related industry and the urban pattern but also the culture of Zhangjiakou. Though there is some shortage, the importance of the fur-trade in Zhangjiakou is worth to approve.