A Study of Disaster Manangement in Rural Community of Minority Regions with Multiple Subjects Participation
|School||Sichuan Agricultural University|
|Course||Agricultural Economics and Management|
|Keywords||minority region rural areas community disaster management multi subject’sparticipation the game analysis|
Our nation’s minority regions, which have complicated nature and geography, fragile ecological environment, are the disaster-prone areas. These regains perennially suffer from many kinds of natural disasters which seriously affect the development of production and life there, also a major reason of becoming poverty or returning to poverty there. The Party and government always pay attention to rural poverty regions, especially the management of disasters in minority regions. General Office of the State Council issued National Comprehensive Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Planning2011-2015, stressing that more efforts are needed to strengthen the construction of the capacity of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban and rural, to improve the system mechanism of disaster prevention and mitigation in urban and rural. And we should improve the ability of disaster prevention and mitigation in rural by combing the construction of new socialist countryside. After the5.12Wenchuan earthquake, the practice and exploration of community disaster management in all districts have provided great ideas to disaster management in all minority regions. General Office of the State Council issued National Integrated disaster reduction "Eleven Five" Planning, clearly putting forward that we should promote grass-roots disaster reduction work and carry out comprehensive disaster mitigation creation activities in demonstration communities. The issue of National Comprehensive Disaster Prevention and Mitigation Planning2011-2015puts forward again the purpose and requirement that we should create5000national comprehensive disaster mitigation demonstration communities in the next five years. The integration of disaster prevention and mitigation to communities has become the important form of future disaster management. At present, the research on community disaster management has just started in our country, has not been theoretical knowledge into the system, and in view of the rural community disaster reduction research is more a lack of. The minority regions suffer from frequent and severe disasters, to the carrier, delve into the series of problem that multivariate subjects’ participation of rural community disaster management can effectively improve the ability of disaster prevention and mitigation in ethnic minority areas, and will be a certain value for enriching the theoretical system of rural community disaster management.On the basis of systematic review the relevant theory and literature about the disaster mitigation and community disaster management in ethnic minority areas. This study investigate deeply in the rural natural disaster condition, disaster reduction and disaster risk response situation in southwest ethnic areas (Sichuan, Yunan, Guizhou, Chongqing four provinces, a total of16sample counties,26sample villages and665sample peasant families).And based on the survey results, combine theory and practice (described practice in theory, abundant theory with practice) to put a study about the series of problem that multivariate subjects participation of rural community disaster management in minority regions. By specifying the participation subject and defining the participation function in community disaster management, to complete the preliminary discussion about the participation time sequence and inner mechanism of multivariate subjects participation; And on this basis, to analyze the problems and its deep reasons in the multivariate subjects participation of community disaster management in rural minority regions; In the end, according to the results of the analysis put forward some suggestions about perfecting multivariate subjects participation of rural community disaster management in minority regions.Through the above research can get the following conclusions:(1)Minority regions in southwest mainly suffer from the threat of four natural disasters like droughts, floods, geological disasters(earthquake, landslide, debris flow), freezing, with the characteristics of many types of disasters, wide distribution, many secondary disasters, great influences, obvious region and period and frequent happening and so on, the situation of disaster mitigation is grim.(2)The participation subjects of rural community disaster management in minority regions including: Government, community, peasant families and social organizing like NGO, enterprises, media etc.In this system, government is the dominant force, village community council is link, farmers are the main subject of disaster prevention and mitigation, and social organization like NGO, enterprises, media and so on are the important supplement of the disaster response force.(3)Disaster response stages are involved in the participation of government, communities, famers, and social organizations, before the disasters, participate in disaster mitigation and disaster preparedness together; when disasters occurring, participate in disaster rescue and emergency response together; After disasters, participate in disaster recovery and reconstruction together.(4)In the process of government leading disaster management, to seek the inner power in coordinated development of the disaster management, need to continuously improve the efficiency of disaster monitoring, increase punishment for negative mitigation in local government; At the same time need to improve the central government relief spending after disaster and reduce rent-seeking space of local government.(5)There are some problems like the participation subjects are negative, the participation process is limited, the participation are disordered and inefficient, and information flow among participation subject is not smooth in rural community disaster management of minority regions. The main reasons of these problems contain the low perspective of participation cognition and ability, the lack of participation atmosphere which leaded by traditional administrative, the mechanism of subject participation is not sound, the law construction of specification participation subject is lag, lack of subject participation system and information sharing,etc.On the basis of the above theory and practice analysis, to cultivate the awareness of disaster crisis, promote participation ability, to establish a sound organization mechanism of multi subject’s participation of community disaster management, to improve the legal system of multi subject’s participation of community disaster management and to strengthen the information management of multi subject’s participation of community disaster management, this essay puts forward some policy suggestions to perfect the multivariate subjects participation of rural community disaster management in minority regions. Specific include:(1) to increase government disaster crisis management consciousness, strengthen education on disaster prevention and mitigation, cultivate a national crisis culture, and constantly enhance the consciousness of the multivariate subject participation, improving the capacity of farmers to participate in;(2) building disaster management organization system based on community, establish department coordination and multivariate subject participation mechanism, and constantly improve the community disaster management incentive and supervision mechanism;(3) to establish and improve legal system to benefit the multivariate subject participation in disaster management, and in view of mitigation practice in minority regions to introduce the local rules and regulations about the development of multiple subject to participate in disaster management community;(4)to strengthen disaster information detection and network construction, and constantly strengthen the communication of information between multiple subject.