Potential Analysis and Layout Optimization for Urban Mining in China
|Course||Environmental Science and Engineering|
|Keywords||urban mining resource metabolism model spatial layout optimization stock analysis maximum coverage model|
The exploitation and demonstration bases construction of "Urban Mining" resource,focused on municipal waste recycling, are of significance in mitigating the resourcesconsumption and the environmental impact, and in promoting the development ofcircular economy on a larger scale in China. To formulate development strategy andimprove relevant policies are the key point of exploiting "Urban Mining" resourceorderly and rationally.Focused on steel, copper, aluminum, lead, the study developed the "Urban Mining"Resource Metabolism Model (UMRM) based on stock analysis. The UMRM modelrealized the dynamic simulation of resource metabolism in different industries. Withscenario analysis, the impact of different technologies, consumption structures, andrecycling on the potential of substitution of "Urban Mining" resource are compared.The Spatial Layout Optimization of "Urban Mining" Resource Model (SLOUMR) wasdeveloped based on exploitation potential of "urban mining" resource. The SLOUMRmodel successfully optimized the scale and layout of "urban mining" resourcedemonstration bases at city-level (287cities in China) with maximum coverage model.The results showed, the exploitation of "urban mining" resource contributed wellto substituting raw resources, reducing dependence on foreign countries, and alleviatingthe pressure on resources consumption in China. During2020-2040, the exploitationpotential of copper increase to8087thousand tons (Kt) from3305Kt, steel increase to7116Kt from2235Kt, aluminum increase to36979Kt from9304Kt, lead increase to12082Kt to5493Kt. The substitution rate of renewable copper, steel, aluminum andlead increases by18.7%,46.1%,27.3%and5.0%, respectively. The proportion ofimported copper, steel, aluminum and lead decreases by13.0%,27.3%,5.0%and6.2%,respectively. Therefore, the construction of "urban mining" resource bases withrecycling of scrap iron and steel, non-ferrous metal wastes, e-waste, and scrapedvehicles are the most effective measures.Effected by market demand and supply, regional economic development andrecycling rate of resources, and transport distance, the optimization on the layout of"urban mining" demonstration bases were carried out to ensure the extent of coverage and economic effects of those bases best. The results showed, the service utility of allbases were best when the number of demonstration bases reached40, i.e., the peopleand GDP in the service area were accounted for94.9%and97.2%of total, respectively.22more demonstration bases of "urban mining" resource are screened out based on thecurrent28bases, such as Nanjing, Chuzhou, Foshan, etc. At last, some suggestions onthe exploitation of "urban mining" resources came to the conclusion, such as the scaleof circular economy industry, layout of bases, environmental polices adjustment, and theimprovement of recycling network, etc.