Dissertation
Dissertation > Agricultural Sciences > Livestock, animal medicine,hunting,silkworm,bee > Animal Medicine ( Veterinary Medicine) > Livestock, poultry, wildlife diseases > Livestock > Dog

A Investigation on Morbidity and Clinical Diagnosis and Treatment of Canine Diabetes Mellitus

Author XieWeiDong
Tutor HuangKeHe
School Nanjing Agricultural College
Course Veterinary
Keywords Canine Diabetes Mellitus Alloxan Model Insulin
CLC S858.292
Type PhD thesis
Year 2013
Downloads 13
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Canine diabetes mellitus is based on the autoimmune processes which destroy the pancreatic beta-cells that synthesize insulin, and causing a nearly complete absence of this hormone. An insulin deficiency prevents the body’s cells to absorb glucose in the blood, and results in hyperglycemia (high blood glucose). Sustained hyperglycemia causes the metabolic disorders of carbohydrates, proteins and fats, with clinical symptoms as polydipsia, polyuria, polyphagia and weight loss. Dogs as pets, have not been paid enough attentions on their health cares, and there are lacks of recognitions on regular medical examinations for pet dogs, an early high blood sugar can be easily overlooked, and the timing of treatment will be delayed. Recently, the canine diabetes mellitus morbidity is not high, and it is about0.005~1.5%. As people’s living standards improved, the amount of pet dog breeding keeps on rising. Consider the lifetime of dogs is about10-15years, thus, the number of aging dogs will be continually increased. At the meantime, pet dogs as companion dogs, enjoy a comfortable living, shackled as a house dog with less exercises, and it shows a great increase of dog obesity that accompanied with increased metabolic and age-related diseases. Moreover, there is a constant increase in canine diabetes mellitus morbidity. Therefore, more attentions should be paid on canine diabetes mellitus.This paper studies the morbidity of canine diabetes mellitus, by carrying out the research of canine diabetes mellitus morbidity with a study on clinical diagnosis and treatment, and then explores the diagnostic procedures and insulin treatments of canine diabetes mellitus.1The morbidity research of canine diabetes mellitus in some regions of ChinaBy collecting the statistics on visit dog cases among14pet hospitals in8regions, from year2009-2011,45112cases have been collected as valid. The three statistics indicators, which include the numbers of visit dogs each year, the numbers of dogs with diabetes mellitus and the percentage that dogs with diabetes mellitus accounts for, have shown an increased trend year by year, and the growth rate of dogs with diabetes mellitus is greater than the growth in the number of visit dogs. In the past3years, the number of dogs diagnosed with diabetes mellitus is212, accounts for0.47%of the total number of visit dogs (212/45112). The small-sized hybrid, Pekingese and Schnauzer have had the highest morbidities, each accounted for26.89%,20.75%and14.62%of total numbers of diabetic dogs. The morbidities are lower among Golden Retriever, Teddy, Doberman and Sausage, they are all below1.89%(0.09%o). The morbidity difference between the male and female dogs is statistically significant (P<0.05), which indicates the female dogs are more prone to diabetes than male dogs.55.67%(29.25%+26.42%) dogs have shown an onset in middle to old age-about7-10years, younger (less than5years old) and elderly dogs (over15years old) have shown a lower morbidity rate (<5%). The morbidities of economically developed cities are significantly higher than inland cities with less developed economies. Among these, the first-tier cities like Beijing and Shanghai have had the highest rates (0.76%and0.67%), which indicates the more developed the economy, the higher the people’s living standards, the higher the probability of dogs suffering from diabetes. The blood glucose levels of78.31%dogs with diabetes mellitus are in15.1-25.0stage, the average is19.1±3.7mmol/L. All the dogs with diabetes mellitus show polydipsia or (and) polyuria symptom, and cataract is very prone to incident, which accounts for72.64%of the total numbers of dogs with diabetes mellitus, the cataract morbidity in both eyes has reached78.57%.2The analysis on clinical diagnosis and treatment of27cases of canine diabetes mellitusThe method of medical history review has been used to analyze the clinical diagnosis and treatment of27diabetes cases which have been diagnose by our hospital. The results shown the main symptoms of canine diabetes mellitus are polydipsia/polyuria (100%), weight loss (92.6%), increased appetite (48.1%) and melancholy (33.3%). The probability of canine diabetes cataract is high (88.9%), and22.2%shown motility disorders.25dogs have different degrees of body weight loss,3of them have a decline of more than30%, which indicate diabetes mellitus is a nutrition consumption disease. Among24cataract dogs,17of them have both eyes cataract, which indicates diabetic cataract is usually bilateral, while unilateral cases also exist.6dogs have mobility disorders, which indicate diabetes brings damages to dogs’ nervous systems.48.1%of diabetic dogs have inflammation, and33.3%dogs have anemia. Most dogs have an increased ALKP, and some of them have an increased ALT and BUN, which prompt damages in liver and kidney functions. The decreased TP indicates the lack of protein, which means a severe malnutrition. Urine analysis reveals that glucose in urine (GLU), specific gravity of urine (SG), ketone bodies (KET) and urine bilirubin (BIL) have shown an abnormality. The treatment results declare that simply by using conventional debridement and anti-infection treatment, none of cases have been cured, and after swapping for insulin treatment, the blood glucose is under control, and the wounds are gradually healed. The group that only take oral hypoglycemic agents shows no significant changes in blood glucose, and the wounds appear no trend of healing, after applying hypoglycemic agents plus insulin treatment, the symptom has been relieved, while drug reactions and liver damages occurred. The RI treatment group has a quicker decline of blood glucose, the acute complications caused by high blood sugar can be quickly relieved, but hypoglycemia can be easily happened. The NPH group has a larger fluctuation of blood glucose which is difficult to control, and hypoglycemia can be easily happened as well. The comparison between N30R and N30indicates that both of them are able to offer a better control of blood glucose, while N30is more stable with a relative small using amount.3The research of canine diabetes modeling by using pancreatic artery injection of AlloxanThe10dogs are randomly divided into single-vascular injection group and multi-vascular injection group, modeling diabetes mellitus through pancreatic artery injection of Alloxan with30mg/kg dose. The results reveal that the molded rate of single-vascular injection group is only20%(1/5), and such rate of multi-vascular injection group has reached80%(4/5). The liver function indicators of dogs in two groups show that ALT and ALKP are in normal range, while AST activity is higher than normal range. The kidney function indicators of dogs in two groups show that BUN and Crea are all in normal range, before and after medications. For functions of pancreas, the AMYL enzyme activity has increased in both groups, insulin concentration has no significant difference (P<0.05) in single-vascular injection group, before and after medications, while there is a significant difference (P<0.01) of insulin concentration in multi-vascular injection group. This indicates a higher molded rate in multi-vascular injection group, with a stable blood glucose, but causes a severe damage to pancreas functions, while there is a slight damage to liver function, and no impact on kidney function. 4The study of skin wound healing of dogs with Alloxan diabetesThe6adult dogs are randomly divided into healthy adult group and adult diabetic group, and the6elderly dogs are randomly divided into healthy elderly group and elderly diabetic group, each group with3dogs. The dogs in diabetic groups are induced to diabetes by Alloxan injection. Abdomen sutures have been made among12dogs with skin defect wounds in shoulders and backs, and the healing conditions will be observed. The results imply that diabetes has significant impact on the sutures healing of old dog (9years old), but shows no significant influence on younger diabetic dog (2years old), days to take out the stitches between young diabetic dogs and healthy dogs show no significant differences. As the timeline from long to short, it is followed by elderly diabetic group, adult diabetic group, elderly healthy group, adult healthy group. The skin wound healing rate of diabetic dogs is significantly lower than healthy dogs, and age differences exist (2years old and9years old). As time increased, the healing rate shows a greater difference among groups.5Screening of insulin preparations for canine diabetes mellitus treatment4dogs with Alloxan diabetes are randomly divided into group of different insulin and group of different dose, each group with2dogs. The dogs in group of different insulin inject one of three kinds of insulin preparations (NN, N30R and N30) in turns, while dogs in group of different dose inject insulin analogues (N30) in turns according to0.1U/kg,0.2U/kg and0.4U/kg weight dose. Before the injections and2,4,6,8,12hours after the injections, blood tests are carried out among two groups of dogs. The results show in group of different insulin, the same dog presents inconsistent changes in blood glucose with different insulin, and the hypoglycemic capacity, from strong to light, is followed by N30>N30R>NN. The different dogs show different blood glucose reactions with same insulin and same dose, fluctuations from largest to smallest are followed by NN>N30R>N30. In group of different dose, the same dog with3insulin concentrations, the higher the concentration, the lower the curve, and more significant in blood glucose control. The results indicate N30has a strong hypoglycemic capacity, with a relative stable glycemic control and small fluctuations.6The application of dual-phase Isophane insulin in clinical treatment of canine diabetes mellitusThe dual-phase Isophane insulin will be used to treat cataract and breast tumors diabetic dogs. The result indicates, by applying small dose of insulin with gradual adjustment, after adjusting the amount of insulin to1.4U (morning) and0.9U (night), the blood glucose has been controlled in5.3~8.2mmol/L range. Breast removal surgery and cataract treatment has been carried out after the blood glucose lowered. The results show that the postoperative skin can reach a healing, while there is no significant effect in cataract treatment by using Bendazac Lysine and Pirenoxine Sodium

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