Disease Investigation and Prevention and Treatment of Deinagkistrodon Acutus under Artificial Breeding in Huangshan City
|Nanjing Agricultural College
|Agkistrodon Acutus Diseases Survey Pathogen Isolation andIdentification Drug Sensitive Test Prevention Measures
The epidemic disease of deinagkistrodon acutus under artificial breeding recently is relatively serious in Huangshan city Anhui province. That caused the heavy losses for some breeding farms and became a serious factor to restrict the development of their artificial breeding. During March in2008to November in2010, a survey about main diseases in seven representative deinagkistrodon acutus breeding farms was made in Huangshan city. Based on the results, the disease category, pathogeny, epidemic characteristics, clinical symptom, prevention and control and effect were mastered, and the incidence and epidemic factors were analyzed. According to the actual situation of deinagkistrodon acutus breeding farms in Huangshan city, some key points about epidemic prevention in future were put forward. All those were beneficial to the specific treatment.Through initial investigation, the main diseases of the deinagkistrodon acutus under artificial breeding in Huangshan city were stomatitis, skin fester disease, cercospora sp., pneumonia, enteritis, trauma, parasitic diseases, poisoning, non-toxic disease and so on. Among them, stomatitis and parasitic diseases had the highest rate of occurrence. Stomatitis was seen frequently on the snakes used to collecting venom, expecially on the snakes just end of hibernation. Cercospora sp. occurred mainly in the rainy season. Large of mould caused by the high temperature and high humidity climate in the breeding farms could make the snakes pathogenesis after infected; pneumonia occurred mainly in the summer, especially for the postspawning female deinagkistrodon acutus; the rate of trauma and skin fester disease was in a high place for the wide and introduced deinagkistrodon acutus and deinagkistrodon acutus under poor feeding and management conditions; the common internal parasites were ticks and mites and leech, while the common external parasites were nematode, trematode and cestode etc.; deinagkistrodon acutus would suffered from poisoning by mistakenly eating food with poisonous contents; the etiology and mechanism of non-toxic disease is still unclear.Survey also showed that farms relatively large had lower incidence and mortality rate than farms relatively small on the main diseases. That was mainly due to the difference of farm site selection, architecture design and layout, feeding manners, feeding level, stocking density, breeding snake source, food selection and so on. Also, unqualified job holder and veterinary hygiene were associated with it, too.Under aseptic condition, purulent secretion and ulcer transudate were collecting from the snakes’oral with stomatitis, and then the Bacteria separated and identified in the secretion and transudate were done pathogenicity test and drug sensitive test. Pathogen identification and drug sensitive test result showed pseudomonas aeruginosa and staphylococcus aurous were the mainly pathogen for stomatitis in Huangshan city and sensitive to ceftriaxone, gentamicin and ciprofloxacin (medium sensitivity to ciprofioxacin and highly sensitive to ceftriaxone and gentamicin). The treatment was mainly by the sensitive drugs for antisepsis and anti-inflammation and assisted by vitamin complex and hormone medicines, disinfecting and sterilizing reasonable and strengthening breeding management. With theses comprehensive control measures,496snakes were treated in2008, and431snakes were cured among them, which made the cure rate reach to87%and the average treatment period was general less than7days;100snakes were treated by the traditional treatment in synchronization, and46snakes were cured among them, which made the cure rate reach to46%and the average treatment period was general7to15days.According to the actual situation of deinagkistrodon acutus breeding in Huangshan city, some problems were put forward, such as farm site selection, architecture design and layout, culture environment, culture facilities, breeding snake source and feeding, aritifical hatch, baby snakes management, overwintering management, method for venom collection, preventing and controlling measurement of diseases, etc.. The solution of those problems could make deinagkistrodon acutus breeding more scientific and standardization.