Researches for Prevention and Control Strategies on Epidemic Characteristics of Major Infectious Diseases in WenZhou from2010to2012
|School||Anhui Medical University,|
|Course||Public Health and Preventive Medicine|
|Keywords||Wenzhou city infectious diseases epidemic features strategy research ofprevention and control|
Objectives By analyzing epidemic major characteristics, prevention and influence of infectious diseases in Wenzhou in recent three years, this paper discusses problems and difficulties faced by the prevention of infectious diseases to improve prevention and control strategies, which brings the city’s prevention ability to a new level and prevent the spread of infectious diseases in this region.Methods Description analysis, Literature Researches, Semi-structured Interviews. The subjects of this research are Wenzhou permanent residents. It analyzes the current situation of infectious diseases with epidemiological methods and studies countermeasures of the problems existing in the prevention and control of infectious diseases. It’s suitable for prevention and control strategies of infectious diseases in the southern coastal region Wenzhou.Result (1)The incidence of notifiable diseases: from2010onwards till2012, a total of27kinds of notifiable diseases were reported, and the average number of reported cases was68,660. The average annual incidence rate was763.18per100,000, totaling164cases of death, and the average annual mortality rate was0.61per100,000.(2)The incidence of Class A and B infectious diseases: Over the period from2010to2012, there was only1case of Class A infectious diseases named cholera reported in2010and 3in2012, the rest were Class B infectious diseases (excluding HIV infection). The average reported Class B infectious diseases were as many as18kinds with27,791cases, the average incidence rate was271.7per100,000.(3)The incidence of Class C infectious diseases:The number of reported cases of class C infectious disease was mainly affected by foot-and-mouth disease, contributing to67.86%,78.75%,85.69%of the reported cases of class C infectious disease in2010,2011,2012respectively.(4) The epidemic characteristics of main infectious diseases in WenZhou:①AIDS. Since1985when the first person with HIV was found in Wen Zhou, the total number of the reported HIV-infected patients has listed among Top2all over the province, among whom71%are with Wen Zhou household registration,74.9%are males and25.1%are females. In HIV patients reported over the past three years,86.2%are infected through sexual transmission, in which heterosexual sex is the main source while the homosexual transmission is increasing.57.5%of HIV/AIDS are20to40years old. The source of HIV/AIDS samples reported in2012was mainly from the medical institutions (51.8%), followed by the disease control institutions (25.5%). The reported mortality was44.44%in2010,32.67%in2011and15.65%in2012, respectively, which annually decrease.②Tuberculosis. By the end of2012, tuberculosis took the place of HBV and was listed in the first place among the I-class and II-class infectious diseases. The incidence of tuberculosis is66.90/100thousand. Over the past three years, the overall severity of tuberculosis is stable with a slightly lowering tendency; the registration rate of tuberculosis patients in different seasons is relatively fluctuant which is higher in the two middle seasons than that at the beginning and the end of the year. From the point of occupation,71.39%are peasants, migrant workers and workers,12.40%do housework or wait for employment, and4.04%are students and children.③Rabies.9rabies infections were reported from2010to2012, all of whom had history of biting exposure and did not take any measures after exposure. The mortality was100%. There are47216exposures on average, in which42539are exposed to domesticated animals with41682 to dogs and2751to cats, and4677are exposed to wild animals with3521to mice.④Viral Hepatitis. With the increasing vaccination rate of hepatitis B vaccine, the positive rate of Hepatitis B surface antigen is rising; the susceptible rate, the newly infected rate and the overall morbidity are all decreasing. The prevalent population of HBV is mainly older age of peasants and workers. The prevalence of HCV is slightly increasing which is closely associated with drug addition and drinking. Peasants and workers are the main population. Due to the adjustment of reporting standards in2012, the number of reported patients with hepatitis virus is decreasing. However, HBV still dominates in viral hepatitis with87.03%in2010,86.06%in2011and78.53%in2012, respectively.⑤Hand-foot-and-mouth Disease.90.34%of patients with hand-foot-and-mouth disease are children at or below5years old, especially those scatted children (75.07%). Over the past three years, the reported number of HFMD patients presents obvious doublet. The report is mainly in May, June and July.Conclusion The current situation of infectious disease prevention and control in Wenzhou city is still very grim, in which the concurrency of old and new infectious diseases, and other major infectious diseases are still great threats for people’s health. Therefore, when discussing the normalized prevention and control measures, we also should adopt proper measures when facing new situation. The infectious-disease control should highlight the preventive work in systematicness, integrity, harmony and sociality. During the control of infectious diseases, people should pay more attention on the factors of environment, society, psychology and administrative means, which will largely impact on diseases. Besides the biological factor, people must stress on the social factors, containing economy, technology, population and so on. We should establish the conception that regarding the whole society as our service object, and emphasize on the education of cultural and spiritual civilization, improve the population quality and build public health system, in which ways can help people to change bad habits and enhance self-health care consciousness. We should prepare for the long-term struggle with infectious diseases, and put more investment on prevention and control of major infectious diseases. Furthermore, we should also establish and improve the compensation mechanism, reinforce professional training, and improve healthy supervision mechanism of basic-level health.