Developmental Anatomy of Medicinal Parts of Sophora Flavescens as well as Age Identification and Study of Accumulation of Secondary Metabolite of Astragalus
|Keywords||growth rings Sophora flavescens anomalous structures medicinal parts Radix Astragalus indification of the age hollow in Huangqi accumulation trend ofmain active ingredients|
[Objective](1) To elucidate the composition structure of “annual rings” and theformation process of anomalous structures in S. flavescens, to further discuss themedicinal parts of S. flavescens;(2) Report the growth rings in different years old RadixAstragali(Huangqi) from different producing areas, to identify Huangqi which fromDaodi producing areas, compare and elucidate the relationship between the number ofgrowth rings in Huangqi with its true age;(3) To elucidate the essence and developmentregularity of hollow in old Huangqi;(4) Explore the accumulation trend of main activeingredients in Huangqi combining “Organ traits-Microstructure-Histochemistry-Content Determination”.[Methods] The investigation on producing areas and medicinal materials marketswere carried out according to the dispute of medicine parts of S. flavescens, themorphology of root systems were be observed, and the developmental anatomy of rootswere be researched; Continuous section of Huangqi with hollow were be producted;Using paraffin section and hand section technology to observe the growth rings indifferent years old Huangqi from different regions, then summarize the relationshipbetween growth rings and its true growth year. Proceeded histochemical localization offlavone and saponin in Huangqi according to the principle of color reaction; The contentof Six compositions of flavone and saponin in1-5and8years old Huangqi were bedetermined by the method of HPLC-DAD and HPLC-ELSD; The Huangqi with similarthickness were divide into three kinds which were Huangqi without hollow、Huangqiwith small hollow and Huangqi with big hollow, the organization structure of the threekings Huangqi were be stripped, then the content of six compositions of flavone andsaponin in every part were be determined, the content of six compositions of flavoneand saponin in Huangqi with hollow and without hollow were be determined; Thecontent of six compositions of flavone and saponin in Huangqi from Hunyuan, Shanxi、Chifeng, Mongolia、Weiyuan Gansu were be determined. [Results] Creeping underground rhizomes of S. flavescen existed in some parts ofthe north place, there were many differences in appearance characters and microscopicfeatures between these roots and rhizomes; Parenchyma cells in secondary xylemregained meristematic ability, became into anomalous cambia, then developed intoanomalous structures;“annual rings” in transverse section of S. flavescens were notgrowth rings,They were made up of anomalous parenchyma girdle in secondary xylemand normal secondary structure.The hollow in the root of Huangqi was related to the development of abnormalstructure; The results shown that the root of Huangqi from Hunyuan, Shanxi has cleargrowth rings, and the number of the growth rings was consistent with its true growthyears, the rings of fiber bundles in secondary xylem of Huangqi from Ji’an Jilincontribute to the judgement of the number of the growth rings, the Huangqi fromChifeng Inner Mongolia and Weiyuan Gansu had not growth rings.The content determination results of four kinds composition in Huangqi fromShanxi showed that: the content of four kinds isoflavones in5-years-old Huangqi wasthe highest, followed by2-years-old Huangqi; The content of four kinds of isoflavonescomponents in different organizational structures exist certain difference, this fourisoflavones in hollow parts and periderm parts were similar, and the content was thelowest, the content of four isoflavones in2-year-old Huangqi of three areas from high tolow in turn was Gansu, Shanxi, Inner Mongolia.The histochemical localization result of saponin indicated that the content ofsaponin in periderm and secondary phloem was higher than phloem obviously. Thecontent determination results of Astragaloside and Astragaloside Ⅱ showed that thecontent of two saponins in1,3,5-year-old astragalus were higher than others; Thecontent of two saponins in periderm was the highest, the content of two saponins in thesecondary phloem was significantly higher than secondary xylem; the content of twosaponins in2-year-old Huangqi of three areas from high to low in turn was Shanxi, Gansu, Inner Mongolia.[Conclusion] Roots are the medicinal parts of S. flavescens, This paper suggestthat “annual rings” in the decoction pieces of S. flavescens should be called “annularstructure”; the Daodi producing area (Hunyuan Shanxi)can be distinguish from otherson the basis of the difference of growth rings, and the growth years of Huangqi fromthis producing area can be identified according to its number of the growth rings;Comprehensive analysis of several kinds of active ingredient content from differentregions, This study insist that the quality of Huangqi from Shanxi is the highest, whichconsistent with the concept that Shanxi is the Daodi region; By comparing the contentof several active ingredients in different years old Huangqi, we suggest that the bestharvest time of Huangqi of Shanxi is five years; Through the comprehensivecomparison of active ingredient in Huangqi with hollow and without hollow, weconsider that if the hollow area is small, the hollow does not affect its quality; Theaccumulation law of several kinds of active ingredients in different organizationalstructures can provide the basis for the rational use of Huangqi resources.