The Analysis of Risk Factors for Childhood Asthma
|School||Dalian Medical University|
|Keywords||asthma risk factor childhood|
Background:. During the past20years asthma has been becoming one of the mostcommon chronic respiratory diseases in children with a rapidly increasing rate ofmorbidity and mortality.The repeated attack of asthma can not only affect the health ofchildren, but also play a negtive role in the psychological development of children. Thepathogenesis of asthma is very complex involving in genetic, environmental, infection,immune and other factors.Objective: To find risk factors for asthma and asthma trigger and provide evidencefor effective prevention and control of asthma occurrence and attack, and in order toreduce the incidence of asthma in children and improve the quality of life of childrenwith asthma.Methods: In this case-control study, questionnaire was used to investigate thefactors associated with childhood asthma. The cases of study group were asthmachildren aged from1to14years and hospitalized in the department of pediatrics of theSecond Affiliated Hospital of Dalian Medical University from Feb1st2012to Jan1st2013, being matched to non-bronchial asthma patients hospitalized with respiratory tractinfection during the same period without past history of asthma. The diagnosis ofasthma refered to childhood asthma diagnostic criteria established by the NationalChildren’s Asthma Collaborative Group. SPSS19.0statistical software was used forstatistical analysis. Univariate and multivariate regression analysis was used to estimaterelative risk of all factors for asthma in children and to further explore the role ofvarious factors.Results:1. The study group included87boys cases and55girls cases with sex ratio of1.58:1.2. Asthma commonly occurred in the3-8year-old children accounting for77.4%and the first attack was seen mostly before the age of4years.. Asthma usually occurredin the evening and autumn with respective rate of35%and26.7%. 3. Allergens of asthma in children5years of age and older were inhaled allergensmainly, accounting for68.8%,such as mite, cat/dog dander, house dust and so on.The patients under5years of age were the more possibility of food allergens like milk,seafood, beef and mutton they had, accounting for52.3%.4.87.3%of acute asthma exacerbation was caused by infection and9.9%of themwas due to exercise.8.5%and4.2%of asthma were induced by contacting allergensand the sudden drop in air temperature respectively.5. In this study,52.8%of asthma patients were diagnosed for the first timewithout therapy.Previous diagnosis of asthma in children in67cases，40case receivedsystemic asthma treatment, accounting for59.7%, and27cases without systemicasthma treatment., accounting for40.3%.6. It is showed by analysis of multi-factor regression that family history of asthmaand allergies, personal history of allergies, passive smoking, interior decoration, mold,pets, infection, too early and inappropriately adding complementary feeding were riskfactors for asthma. However, spontaneous delivery, breastfeeding, high educationallevel of parents and mother’s health education during the period of pregnancy wereprotective factors for asthma.Conclusion:1. Asthma is commonly seen in the3-8year-old children with the first attack beforethe age of4years.2. Asthma commonly occur in the evening and autumn. Infection, exposure toallergens, excessive exercise can induce an acute attack of asthma. Early diagnosissystemic and professional therapy are crucial to control asthma and reducing acuteexacerbation of asthma.3. Older children’s serum allergens are mainly inhaled allergens, but infants andyoung children are often allergic to ingestive allergens.4. Family history of asthma and allergies, personal history of allergies, infant andearly childhood respiratory infections, too early and inappropriately addingcomplementary feeding, passive smoking, environment and the contact of allergens arerisk factors for asthma.5. Spontaneous delivery, breastfeeding, high educational level of parents andmother’s health education during the period of pregnancy are protective factors forasthma.