The Study of Pure Land Faith Reflected in Dunhuang Left Paintings and Literature among the Paintings
|Course||Ancient Chinese Literature|
|Keywords||Dunhuang left paintings Silk painting Embroidery Dunhuang engravings PureLand faith|
In later time of the2nd century AD, with the translation of Pure Land Sanskrit classic for the Chinese language. Pure Land faith is introduced to China from India. In Han and Jin Dynasties, Pure Land monks’activities promote the development of Pure Land faith. In Tang Dynasty Pure Land monks, such as Shandao monk and Fazhao monk, hands-on advocacy make Pure Land faith become a gigantic religious group. In the ensuing three or four centuries, it affects the whole of China. With the incoming of the Pure Land thought, the creation of the Pure Land art also flourished. As a branch of Buddhist art. Pure Land’s Art has an important instructive for revealing the process of Buddhist art in China. With the introduction of Buddhism the Buddhist art of India is also introduced to china which had a strong influence on Chinese Buddhist art. By land and sea are the two routes for the introduction of Buddhist art of the Sui and Tang dynasties. The first is the incoming of foreign powder, which was followed by the Tang Dynasty painter own on the basis of learning a foreign powder to create a new one.The prosperity of Buddhist paintings in Sui and Tang is due to the abnormal development of Buddhist. Both Court and civil society have a lot of painters engaged in Buddhist paintings draw. The Royal painting institutional settings in Five Dynasties and Song Dynasty are particularly complete. The painting official post set ted by the Central Plains Regional Authorities has a great influence on Dunhuang.Dunhuang also has Art Institute and painting line set, which is a direct stimulus to the prosperity of the Dunhuang art of painting. There are a lot of records of the Pure Land painting in the history of Sui and Tang Dynasties painting. Art relics of Sui to Five Dynasties painting was found in the Dunhuang Library Cave at the beginning of the twentieth century in which the Dunhuang legacy painting is particularly worth noting. Silk painting, embroidery, prints are the main three categories. Paintings on silk and other cloth-class works of art have the largest number in Dunhuang left painting. The left painting materials of cloth in Dunhuang mostly come from the Central Plains. This is due to the Dunhuang local cloth production is not very prosperous; the species is more limited. The flourished production of Tang Dynasty’s cloth and silk provides a premise for the creation of heritage painting. The production of cloth booms in Tang Dynasty, which is because the cloth is an important source of the Tang Dynasty tax. Cloth has an important economic and strategic position in the national rule. Sometimes Cloth also was used as a currency. Tang Dynasty palace also has complicated dyeing agencies on the cloth and then processing.The largest number in the left painting in Dunhuang is silk painting. The Statues of the reality and highly utilitarian is very important for the ancient Dunhuang people in which Chasing a blessing for the dead is the most common.The statues dependent utilitarian is not only reflect on the motives of dependent people and statues, but also in the choice of dependent on the main statue which is more clearly in Dunhuang Paintings on silk. Compared to costly Grotto is mostly dominated by the aristocratic families, a larger number of lower-level officials and ordinary people participate in the lower cost of silk paper statues. The main statue of the Dunhuang silk paper statues mainly has Amitabha, Medicine Buddha, Maitreya, Goddess of Mercy, Jizo, King and so on. Particular, the Goddess of Mercy, such as Thousand Statue, Water Moon Avalokitesvara,11Goddess of Mercy, the four-armed Goddess of Mercy, the six-armed Goddess of Mercy Avalokitesvara, Goddess of Mercy Avalokitesvara, Avalokitesvara Mandala, extending the life of Avalokitesvara, lead the way Goddess of Mercy Avalokitesvara. Amitabha, Medicine Buddha, Maitreya Buddha, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva and Jizo are closely related to the Pure Land faith. Therefore study the Dunhuang left painting is of great significance for the case of investigation of Pure Land faith among Dunhuang civil.Embroidery is a traditional Chinese excellent traditional crafts. With the development of Buddhism, this process is also used in the production of Buddha and Buddhist. Embroidery relic of the early twentieth century found in Dunhuang Library Cave and Tarpon region give a solid evidence to prove this. Existing well-known Buddhist embroidery relics has one in Northern and Southern Dynasties and six in the Sui and Tang Dynasties. The technology of Embroidery is also been applied to the embroidery Buddhist, P.4500is a typical representative of this. This indicates that the embroidery process has gradually turned to a new level; it evolves gradually from general clothing items to appreciate the value needlecraft. Pure Land faith is unprecedented popular in Tang Dynasty.There is also a large number of painted Buddha, Bodhisattvas, and in disguise chapters in the Chinese collection of essays in tribute in Tang Dynasty which are related to the Pure Land faith. The believers in the Tang Dynasty made embroidery of Pure Land Buddha, Buddha and the demands of the disguised form of merit are mostly out of the deceased owned blessing in the past to arrive to Pure Land, which has become the main form of Pure Land beliefs reflected in the embroidery. To do good deeds of Embroidery works of art need pay attention to fine, the finer the more to see sincerity, especially Illustrated, as perfectly demonstrated wears the solemn pomp of the Western Paradise Pure Land, which the embroidery making techniques with high demands.In Tang Dynasty, because of literati painter’s broad participation, the painter feeding the artist embroidered painting, embroidery and painting combined together. Recorded in the Tang Dynasty literature has a lot of praise for the art of Buddhist embroidery text, in which a lot of praise and Pure Land faith in Amitabha, Maitreya, the Medicine Buddha, Avalokitesvara Bodhisattva Jizo and the Pure Land in disguise are the main chapters. Literature is an important supplement of the Dunhuang embroidery remnants. The combination of the two parts is very necessary to do the research. These masteries have important historical value and literary value to reveal the Tang Dynasty Buddhist embroidery (mainly the rise of Pure Land embroidery) activities. Dunhuang engravings are also related to the Pure Land faith. Woodblock printings is one of the four great inventions of China. In Sui and Tang Dynasty, with the formation of italics, stone carving hammer replication topology, stenciling template puncture with some missing, development of engraving technology for mode as Print-tech logy, a lot of papers and ample ink, all of these factors lay the material foundation for Woodblock printings. China’s woodblock printings birth in the Sui Dynasty or latest in early Tang Dynasty, after the development of the Tang Dynasty and Five Dynasties, China’s woodblock printings obtain the overall prosperity in Song Xixia and Yuan Dynasties and eventually reach their peak in Ming and Qing Dynasties. Until the Five Dynasties, engraving printings still have close relation with Pure Land faith. The article also makes a highlight of Pure Land faith among China’s woodblock printings in Five Dynasties, such as engraving printings of Amitabha, Bodhisattva, Manjushri and Jizo. These four engraving printings reveal the spread of enthusiasm of Pure Land faith among Dunhuang local folk and the whole Chinese civil in woodblock printings in the Five Dynasties. To the Song Dynasty sculpture, such as Zhu Lan and other scriptures, until the large-scale sculpture of the Ming and Qing Dynasties Dharani scripture text vow appeared inclined to the Pure Land faith trend. From the Late Tang Dynasty until the Ming and Qing Dynasties, this enthusiasm of the Pure Land faith of the Chinese folk reflected in woodblock printing is very popular.Dunhuang legacy painting, whether it is silk painting, embroidery or engraving, has the tendency of the Pure Land faith. The production age of this group of works of art addition is mostly in the Late Tang and Five Dynasties to early Song. Pure Land faith becomes the deep ideology of the majority of believers in Dunhuang civil heritage and became the public S&P Pan-merit appeals. Although Dunhuang is located in the border areas, but it is also a microcosm of the land of China, the quest to save the Pure Land faith in the left paintings in the Dunhuang area, you can infer three or four centuries from the Tang Dynasty to the early Song Dynasty, the Pure Land faith in the folk beliefs occupies a pivotal position.There are four-point in the cultural phenomenon of literature reflected in Dunhuang left painting, which is Sacrificial culture, Temple Culture, Official Post culture and Surnames. Dunhuang left painting literature, especially the painting title list by the changing picture in silk painting, have some connection to Dunhuang Pure Land class speak scriptures. The text in Dunhuang left the painting is closely associated to Dunhuang Buddhist literature. The article mainly makes analysis from four aspects, which are literature of the Buddhist literature in the early mourning, funeral literature, National festival literature and Folk festival literature.