Study of discourse markers in modern Chinese example class
|Course||Linguistics and Applied Linguistics|
|Keywords||exampled discourse-markers pragmatic functions grammarticalization|
Discourse-markers is a common phenomenon in language communication, they mainly used to guide and restrict people’s communication, not participate in the construction of information of sentence. There is a class of discourse-markers called exampled discourse-markers, in verbal conversation, they are often used to mark the speaker’s attitude and position for the reality basis. So far, such research of exampled discourse-markers can be find in very few situation.We called these pragmatic elements which can cited examples and play the connection role in chapters "exampled discourse-markers". According what composition would act as exampled discourse-markers, such discourse-markers can be divided into words and phrases; this kind of the discourse-markers and it’s subsequent components; this kind of discourse markers also can be divided into frame type and complete type by the standard of its completeness. There are differences of logical relationship, degree of openness and style of language in different categories. We find that exampled discourse-markers mainly have four functions:cited examples, leading the topic, making a assume and connecting words. Different functions choose different subsequent components of exampled discourse-markers, when it’s used to take for examples, the constraints of syntactic structure is relatively flexible, the follow-up component can be a phrase or a small clause; when it’s used as the topic and the connection function, they prefer to choose small sentences; when it’s used to be assumes, the follow-up must be sentences.Take the angle of relevance theory and coherence theory, we can see pragmatic functions of exampled discourse-markers mainly reflect in the discourse of construction of the generation and comprehension, language and interpersonal interaction. It’s materialized for strengthen the subjectivity of the speaker, activating the cognitive background, qualified topic contents, introducing new information, join up the chapters, building communication relationship and so on. These functions often to mess up and overlap crossed.The composition acts as exampled discourse-markers can be a word, or a phrase, even can be composite structures which including a word/phrase and personal pronoun ni(你). All kinds of exampled discourse-markers are the results of the diachronic evolution of the language system. Most of the word kind of exampled discourse-markers experience the process of grammarticalization, they first go though lexicalization, different level of syntactic component has been identified as an independent word after analysis, then blur to adverbs, along with semantic falsified, syntactic function in the process of change and the expansion of pragmatic, eventually they evolved into exampled discourse-markers. The phrase kind of exampled discourse-markers base on the word kind of further combination along with other language components. The degree of blur is not consistent between different members, and the grammarticalization mechanisms play a different role in the process. In process of biru (比如), analogy mechanism played a leading role, while in process of haobi (好比), metaphor mechanisms play a major role, on the choice of ni (你), the selectivity of the subjective and interaction of subjective occupied a dominant position. On the basis of synchronic description about the kinds and the functions of exampled discourse-markers, we can make further explanation in the functions of exampled discourse-markers from the process and principle of forming in diachronic analysis.