On the Intertextuality of Word and Image in the Case of Ming-Dynasty Block-Printed Opera Illustration
|Course||Literature and Art|
|Keywords||"word-image" intertextuality Ming-Dynasty block-printed edition operaillustration illustrated books|
The relationship between word and image is not only a theoretical problem but also a practical problem with both the traditional origin and practical new change. Although word and image belong to different symbol systems, and their functions are also different, each one has its good points. Exploring the relationship between word and image, we should not put too much emphasis on the antagonism between them, but focus on the contrast and intertextuality; we should not resort to some empty slogans, but regard "text" as the basis, summing up the basic pattern of word-image expression and the inherent laws of intertextuality. Starting from the Ming Dynasty block-printed opera illustration, this paper focuses on the multiple intertextuality between "word" and "image", sums up its presentation styles, explores its deep mechanism, grasps the inner tension, and promotes the illustrations to a "critical form", trying to construct the basic framework of intertextuality between word and image from the theoretical level.Chapter one mainly combs the historical evolution of Ming Dynasty block-printed opera illustration. Chinese ancient operas experienced the development process of the beginning in Yuan Dynasty, the prosperity in Ming Dynasty and the decline in Qing Dynasty. In the glory of opera illustration in Ming Dynasty, there exists plural form changes in terms of the location, layout, and types of illustration, and a variety of functional evolution from the "text decoration" to "narrative painting" and then to "flattery painting", and there also exists the multiple integration among "meaning form","intent form" and "implication form"Chapter two analyzes the dominant presentation of the intertextuality of word and image in Ming Dynasty block-printed opera illustration. For the opera illustration, each "image" is different, and each "text" is also variable. The different combinations and presentations between them constitute various forms of intertextuality of word and image:the first is "image resulting from text", including image in comparison with the text, image simplified by the text and image complicating the text etc.; the second is "image attached with text", including the parenthetical form, plot-hinting form, and title-painting-poem form; the third is "text derived from image", namely the image proving history.Chapter three to five analyzes the deep expression and recessive presentation of "word-image" intertextuality of Ming Dynasty block-printed opera illustration from the following three aspects respectively:opera illustrations and opera vocabulary, the characteristics of illustration literati and opera literati, and "far association" and "close analogy". Chapter three analyzes the recessive intertextuality of opera illustrations and opera vocabulary from such aspects as opera induction, opera hints, opera libretto, opera commentaries and space-time processing art, opera communication etc. Although the Ming Dynasty opera illustration can not directly tell with words as other opera art elements, it is always making use of a special image vocabulary to translate language and text. Chapter four focuses on the analysis of the recessive intertextuality of illustration literati and opera literati. The literati process of Ming Dynasty operas is reflected in not only the words, but also the illustration. The opera illustration is developed from the literal performance to the expression of emotion and perfect decoration; at first, the opera illustration highlights the stage effect striving to create a "realistic space", then gradually it shows "poetic space" and "space of form" with literati color, and eventually it evolves into the "desk study" of scholars. The relationship between image and word also becomes distanced. The literati color and artistic independence of illustration are increasingly strengthened. Thus, in the juncture of "literati", a more hidden and profound "word-image" intertextuality of Ming Dynasty block-printed illustrated opera is formed. Chapter five presents the recessive intertextuality between opera illustration and the "pre-word"(far association) and "painting vocabulary"(close analogy). Opera illustration is associated with not only the opera text tightly attached to it, but also constitutes a recessive intertextual association with other prior texts(pre-word), i.e."far association"; at the same time, opera illustration constitutes an intertextual relationship with the "painting vocabulary" which absorbs the painting resources of that era integrated with the epoch picture or individual elements, i.e."close analogy". Whether it is "far association" or "close analogy", a potential text is constituted which forms a new intertextuality relationship with opera image, presenting multiple "word-image" intertextuality forms such as surface and deep intertextuality, vertical and horizontal intertextuality, external-and potential intertextuality, homogeneous and heterogeneous intertextuality.Based on the previous chapters which sum up the dominant and recessive presentation of "word-image" intertextuality, chapter six to eight mainly explores the deep mechanism of "word-image" intertextuality of Ming Dynasty block-printed illustrated opera. Chapter six focuses on the analysis of the possibility of the mutual imitation and conversion between word and image, and how "word-image" intertextuality is realized in the symbol level. Both word and image have their respective "grammar" and "syntax", grammatical rules or orders, and context or correlation domain. Multilayer symbolic action, multiple meaning integration and multilayer switch of angle of view constitute the multiple symbols of illustrated opera "word-image" intertextuality; different symbols express the same images, external action transfers inner emotions, and visual image reproduces auditory responses. All of these make up the synesthesia isomorphism between word and image symbols. Chapter seven explores the deep mechanism of "word-image" intertextuality from the perspective of "word-image agent" and "image-word agent"."Word-image" intertextuality is not a linear correspondence between word and image, but is regulated by the inner deep generative-transformational mechanism:indirect text ("word") forms intertextuality with graph ("image") via "word-image agent", and graph forms intertextuality with indirect text via "image-word agent". The readers have to master dual ability of "word-image agent" and "image-word agent" to achieve "word-image" intertextuality. Chapter eight further deepens the research of deep-level mechanism of "word-image" intertextuality from the angle of narrative function of opera illustration. From the syntagmatic perspective,"image" can be regarded as "flashforward" of "word". From the paradigmatic perspective,"word-image" relationship can be considered as "narrative space-time body". Speaking of "narrative space-time body" from the paradigmatic perspective,"word-image" relationship is the embodiment of "spatialization of time", i.e. to win the space in the course of time; from the syntagmatic perspective,"word-image" relationship is the embodiment of "temporalization of space", i.e. to access time in the space exhibition. It is in the syntagmatic and paradigmatic representation system that "flashforward" and "narrative space-time body" are formed and that "word-image" intertextuality and multiple denotation are accumulated and integrated.Chapter nine mainly studies the illustrated opera "word-image" intertextuality and image-word gap. The relationship between word and image is very subtle and complex. There is the side of coexistence, intertextuality, complementation, and there are also cracks and voids. There are such image-word gaps in opera illustration as "symbol gap","behavior gap" and "acceptance gap" etc."Word-image" intertextuality and image-word gap share one body with two different sides, maintaining a certain tension which constitutes an artistic landscape of "harmony but not sameness" in the word-image relationship.The illustration is promoted to a kind of "criticism" in the conclusion part. Ming-Dynasty block-printed opera illustration is not only an appendage of linguistic text. It has its independent artistic value. This value is not only reflected in the fact that opera illustration itself is a work of art, and it can exist alone leaving the linguistic text, but more important is that it embodies the "viewpoint" of the image author, embodies an interpretation of image text for word text, and embodies the openness of the interpreted space. The "word-image" visual expression, the "stop and stare" aesthetic inn and the "image beyond image" connotation space constitute the critical "image explaining meaning" characteristics of this special criticism form——illustration.