On the Diplomatic Relations of Ji during the Spring and Autumn Period
|School||Liaoning Normal University|
|Course||History of Ancient China|
|Keywords||The Spring and Autumn Period The State of Jin Diplomatic Relations|
During the Spring and Autumn period,with the decline of ability that the royal courtof Zhou had control of the states,the political style that ceremonies,music and punitiveexpeditions proceed from the emperor had been gradually replaced by the political stylethat ceremonies,music and punitive expeditions proceed from the seigneurs,so thepolitical diplomacy with the big vassal states at the core became the social characteristicsof the Spring and Autumn period.In this opportunity,by active interstate diplomacy,thestate of Jin became the overlord of the central plain region which affected the socialdevelopment of the Spring and Autumn period from a remote and small state.So Jin’sdiplomacy is an important factor promoting the development of Jin and affecting thesocial development of the Spring and Autumn period.Therefore,it’s of great significancefor the study on the history of the state of Jin and diplomatic research that inspection onJin’s diplomacy.The Introduction section introduces the significance and research value of thetopic,research status in recent years,and also describes the main research method.The first chapter expounds the developing process of Jin’s diplomacy.During theearly Spring and Autumn period,by interstate diplomatic activities,the state of Jinestablished a new order of interstate diplomatic relations centered on Jin in Fen RiverBasin,and a new patten of interstate politics in which Jin and Qin were both regarded asoverlords in the upper and middle regions of Yellow River.During the middle Spring andAutumn period,the state of Jin regarded honouring the king and driving off the barbariansas its diplomatic theme,through interstate diplomatic activities with the states in thecentral plain region,Jin gradually established a central plains league centered on resistanceto the state of Chu.During the late Spring and Autumn period,Jin became involved in thestruggle among domestic ministers,which not only caused the collapse of the centralplains league,but also resulted in the lost of Jin’s dominant position in interstatediplomatic relations.The second chapter reveals five factors which affect Jin’s diplomacy,includingnatural environment,economic factors,political factors,cultural factors and diplomaticprofessionals.On the one hand,natural environment provided objective conditions for Jin’sdiplomacy.On the other hand, it also limited the development of Jin’sdiplomacy.Economic factors were not only the foundation of Jin’s diplomacy,but alsopromoting the development of Jin.The influence of political factors to Jin’s diplomacyreflected from both external politics and internal politics.External diplomatic system notonly promoted the development of Jin’s diplomacy,but also limited the development ofJin’s diplomacy.Internal politics had direct influence on the strategy formulation andplanned implementation.The impact of cultural factors to the diplomatic relations of Jinincluded both the influence of cultural systems which affected the diplomatic ideas andthe ways of war, and the influence of cultural concepts.For one thing,cultural conceptsaffected the determination of strategy formulation.For another thing,cultural conceptsprovided a basis for the ruling groups making diplomatic plans.Diplomatic professionals directly affected Jin’s diplomacy through carrying out the diplomatic plans.The third chapter outlines the characteristic of Jin’s diplomacy.On the one hand,Jinhas four characteristic in the diplomatic strategy, including independence,honouring theking and driving off the barbarians,having both the doctrine of kingcraft and dominance atthe same time, and carrying out diplomatic plans by using the diplomatic systems.On theother hand,Jin has two characteristic in the diplomatic methods, including focusing on themeetings of the leagues and the war among the states, and establishing a regulation takingnobilities who came from other states in serving for diplomatic relations.The fourth chapter evaluates the influences of Jin’s diplomacy on Jin’s internalpolitics and the social political situations of the Spring and Autumn period.Jin’sdiplomacy had feedback effects and instrumental functions to Jin’s internal politics.Whenthe diplomatic plans being completed well,Jin developed in a active diplomaticconditions.But when the diplomatic plans being completed badly or the diplomatic plansthemselves being totally wrong,Jin would locate in a terrible diplomatic conditions.In thesame time,the diplomatic activities not only became a tool of struggle among differentpolitical groups in the state of Jin,but also were used by other states to affect Jin’spolitics,and contributed to the authority downward shifting in the state of Jin.Jin’sdiplomacy also played an important role in the changing process of political situationsduring the Spring and Autumn period.First,the diplomatic activities of Jin protected thestates in the central plains from the invasion of northern Rong and Di,western Qin andsouthern Chu,making it possible that the Zhou states and the cultural lives bothcontinued.Second,the diplomatic activities of Jin played a role in honouring the king anddriving off the barbarians,not only maintain the emperor’s status,but also maintain theritual order in the central plains through dominant politics.Third,the diplomatic activitiesof Jin not only strengthened the relationships among the states in the central plains,butalso enhanced cultural exchanges between the Zhou states and the Non-Zhoustates,promoting the ethnic fusion.Finally,Jin’s diplomacy not only promoted economicdevelopment of society of the Spring and Autumn period,but also played a role inpromoting the system of rites and music suitable for the temporal social situations.The conclusion section summarizes research production above,points out that it isJin’s diplomacy making Jin forming solidary relationships with both the royal court ofZhou and the society of the Spring and Autumn period,which is the important meaning ofJin’s diplomacy for the society of the Spring and Autumn period.