Study on the United States of America's Intelligence(1943-1955)
|School||Sichuan Normal University|
|Keywords||American intelligence agencies of America’s intelligence work inSino-US relations|
Around the year1936, the United States of America gradually turned tothe European war from the economic crisis of "Great Depression". At the same time, theAmerican intelligence can not cope with unexpected situations under severe war, due toshortage of integration and analysis system from the government departments under theintelligence unit. Whereupon, setting up an independent intelligence system wasprepared in President Roosevelt’s mind in the context of such a weak Americanintelligence work. Until the outbreak of the1942attack on Pearl Harbor, the UnitedStates Strategic Intelligence Bureau was formally established which was in anindependent core position, responsible for intelligence collection, analysis and foreignpublicityIn1947, the United States of American passed the "national security act",established the National Security Council and the Central Intelligence Agency.Compared to the intelligence agencies in the past, the new agency had a more extensivefunction scope. It marked that the shape of the United States intelligence agenciesbasically formed. From the United States of America’s intelligence assessment of theUnited States intelligence work, we can see segment of a whole. It presented a veryunstable characteristic because of the United States intelligence’s new establishmentand frequent changes in this period. Taking China’s third civil war for example, most ofthe United States of America’s Intelligence acquisition derived from the published textinformation. So. It was clear that the intelligence agency was difficult to get accurate,reliable internal secrets and lack of comprehensive vision of development of the eye onanalyzing problem. The United States of America intelligence work’s disadvantages revealed beyonddoubt in the Korean War. The intelligence assessment report was the important basis ofthe United States of America’s foreign policy. A major restructuring needed taking intopractice in order to change the situation report. The establishment of the nationalintelligence assessment mechanism, regulations on handling specific differences andemergency were the two major changes in the American intelligence agencies whichtruly enriched intelligence assessment the functions of the state and improved theintelligence agencies in the United states. During this period, the United States ofAmerica’s intelligence work also tended to mature, with the performance of detaileddivision of labor, master of abundant information, broad aspects. Correct foreignjudgments were made based on timely interpretation of Chinese information. The firstTaiwan Strait crisis case showed that how successful the United States intelligencesystem reform was. In handling the crisis, the United States of America’sdecision-making and attitude turned out to be very cautious, so as to maintain a constantpolicy in Taiwan, to prevent further deterioration of relations with China, and to containChina’s unity.The United States intelligence agencies was growing with the United States ofAmerica’s strong development. It had made great progress from the earliest wartimeintelligence extending to each sector of the country. Analysis of the report informationwas an important basis for the national policy. With the decryption of archives, we hadalready knew more about the American intelligence agencies. Accompanied by theopening of the American intelligence file, we can make a more objective conclusion incontrast to our own national conditions. Based on China’s four representative wars thathappened during1943to1955and assessment on Chinese intelligence work, this thesistried to figure out the development of national intelligence agency system and therelevant period of foreign policy.