The Research on the Theory of God's Will and Ghosts of Taoist of Pre-Qin
|Keywords||Taoists in Pre-Qin Dynasty Fate ghost and god immorality of the soul|
Many researchers think that in the Spring and Autumn and Warring States Periodsour country has appeared atheism thoughts and atheism thinkers, when Zi chan, YanZi,Laozi, Zhuangzi, etc are thought to have atheism thoughts. This thesis gives theseadvanced thinkers a concrete investigation, thinking they are not real atheist. In fact,during the Spring and Autumn period, the influence of the supernatural destiny is quitebig, than Shang Dynasty just in degree is a little change, and no any different nature.Though there are also a small number of the so-called "progressive thinker", in someparticular situation will doubt the authority of the God and the power of the ghosts, butin general no one can deny the existence of supernatural destiny, and there is noso-called atheism thinker.Taoists believed in the God, also believed the God’s will. What Lao tze said inmany chapters about the heavens followed the traditional means and didn’t only meanthe nature. What Zhuangzi said about heavens and fate, in many cases really resolved alot of religious color, but sometimes Zhuangzi’s heaven was still religious, and the fatewas traditional in the sense of destiny. Taoist’s destiny ideas have the followingcharacteristics: first, fate has strong authority. Second, destiny is the unity of thecontingency and necessity. Third, the fate of the Taoists is intellectual, mysterious andunpredictable. Fourth, fate has close relationship with the opportunity. The conclusionabout fate and opportunity has a negative pessimistic means, bringing about a deepsense of hopelessness.Taoists did not deny ghost, Laozi’s "tao" itself with ghosts had close relationship.Liezi not only distincted clearly out the ghosts, but also he thought where existed astrict ghosts system. Zhuangzi and Liezi was similar, for ghost and god, Zhuangzi hadnever doubted that they were there. Taoists mostly had some immortality faith.Zhuangzi shaped a series of supernatural beings and he should believe the existence ofthe supernatural beings.Taoists also had a soul undead concept. Laozi to sacrifice and the funeral rite veryseriously, the attention we can from the launch Laozi has a soul undead concept.Zhuangzi also believed that the soul not die, how about people who die of soul,Zhuangzi thought a person’s lifetime situation directly affected the situation after thedeath of his soul. Although didn’t not deny the ghost and the god’s existence and the soul not die,but Taoists had supernatural concepts to the Gods and ghosts. Taoists denied the God’sabsolute authority, highlighted the subjectivity and had rational attitude to the so-calledghost phenomenon.To the superstitious behavior Taoists also expressed their views and revealed thecriticism. First of all, the Taoists revealed the dream superstition. They completelydenied the Gods and ghosts’ will with the relation of the causes of the dream to aprevious scientific explanation. Zhuangzi’s dream thought inherited view based onideas, and the further development: first, the main body of the dream has changed agreat deal, and based on this, the understanding to the illusion of Zhuangzi’s dream of,complete denial of the dream of the good or ill luck omen function; Second, Zhuangzirevealed the ruler’s using to the dream; Third, Zhuangzi put forward the thought of lifelike dream. Second, in the pre-Qin period, interaction thought between Heaven andman includes the theological interaction and the natural interaction. Taoist schoolmainly holdings the thoughts of natural interaction. Laozi and Liezi, the interactionidea includes some theological concept. Wenzi’s thought about interaction mainly isthe natural interaction and few theological elements, but his induction of the gasinclude not only the material gas, but also the non-material’s heartfelt gas.Occasionally he also say "with the help of the sky, the land, and the ghost ",whichmakes his induction has some of the mystery. Zhuangzi abandoned theologicalinteraction thoughts, completely from nature to chat interaction between Heaven andman.Again, until the Spring and Autumn and the Warring States Periods, physiognomywas very popular, people also believed that face could decide fate. Zhuangzi onphysiognomy had a rational understanding, which is XiangShu scam revealed earlier.In addition, the Taoist of demon causes and the spirits to activities is to do the morerational explanation.