The Research of Intuition under the Paradigm of Unconscious Thought
|Keywords||dual process models intuition unconscious thought decisionoutcome decision mechanism|
Dual-process model assume people’s cognitive activity involves two differentprocessing systems: deliberate system and intuition system. The intuitive system isdeemed to be sources of bias in decision-making such as the reference effects, lossaversion and a variety of heuristics, as it is susceptible to experience and emotion. But aseries of recent results show that we need to re-look at this view. First, the researchersbelieve that heuristics (such as lexicographic rules) is not equivalent to the intuition.Second, the traditional view may have underestimated the role of the intuitive system.Instead, intuition, under certain conditions, is essential for value integration and intuitivejudgments, rather than the deviation. More recently, the hypothesis that the processesassociated with intuition can facilitate decision quality has been supported by a series ofstudies by Dijksterhuis and colleagues, who proposed that, in complex decisions,decision quality is enhanced by setting the problem aside (from conscious scrutiny)after the initial (conscious) encoding. Namely, the existence of unconscious thinkingeffect. After that, they proposed the unconscious thought theory (UTT) to explain theeffect, and gave details of the six basic principles of unconscious thinking.Comparative analysis based on the theory of unconscious thinking and dualprocessing system model, we found unconscious thinking and intuition have manysimilarities. First of all, both of which are unconscious processes, the process does not(or rarely) perceived awareness; Second, relative to the conscious mind, they have agreater capacity, do not take little or occupation psychological resources; both of whichdepend on the overall processing integrated value information to make an overalljudgment. However, the difference between them is obvious, unconscious thinkingemphasis on process and requires a certain distraction time, the immediate results of thevisceral focus and does not need to be distracted time. So what is the relationship between unconscious thinking and intuition? As someresearchers believe that the unconscious effect of thinking is the intuition of the results ofthe processing advantages in the value of integration, or both are two different thoughtprocess? This is essential for the UTT. If unconscious thinking effect is intuitiveprocessing advantages in the value of integration, that is, unconscious thinking the sameas intuition, then we can UTT grouped into intuitive framework to explain theunconscious effect of thinking down, which will directly shaken the innovation anduniqueness of UTT.In order to investigate the relationship between the unconscious thinking andintuition, the study carried out two experiments. Experiment, respectively, in thedecision-making problem of the multi-feature (Experiment1a) and risk decision-making(Experiment1b) investigated the difference of both the quality of decision-making;experiments to characterize the polarization (Experiment2a) and characterization ofpolymerization (Experiment2b) perspective, Compare unconscious thinking and intuitiondifference in the decision-making mechanism. This study the following conclusions:(1) Unconscious thinking and intuition in the decision-making quality was nosignificant difference. Specifically, in the decision-making on the issue of multi-feature,the group decision-making quality of unconscious thinking group and intuition are nosignificant differences, and were significantly better than the conscious thought group;There was also no difference in risk decision-making on the issue of unconsciousthinking group and intuition, and were not superior to the conscious mind.(2) Unconscious thinking and intuition in the decision-making mechanisms differ.Specifically, in the characterization of polarization, unconscious thinking group andintuition group does not exist difference between the two groups were not characterizedpolarization; characterization of the polymerization, the the unconscious thinkingpolymerization scores were significantly higher than the intuition group betweendifferent. Therefore, the unconscious thinking and intuition in the decision-makingquality is the same, but still may be two different thought process.(3) Although the decision-making qualities of unconscious thinking and intuition arethe same, they are still different processes. This study suggests that a more detailed, more accurate indicator of intuition andunconscious thinking to explore mechanisms to enhance the understanding of theunconscious, automatic process of thinking.