Historical Lessons for CPC's Power Structure Reform from CPSU's Breakup
|Keywords||combination of decision-making,execution and supervisionpowers power structure appointing post according to grade thedisintegration of the Soviet Union and Soviet Communist Party the powerstructure reform of the CPC|
Power structure, the basic existence of the human society, is an important embodiment of the state political structure and Party system and the core content of the leading and organization system. Deng Xiaoping, the chief designer of China’s reform and opening up, told the whole Party thirty-three years ago that the problem of leading system and organization system with power structure as the core is more likely to be considered as the fundamental and long-term problem, which is connected with the stability of the whole situation. This kind of problem is not only concerned with whether the Party can still be in power but also connected with whether the nature of Party and Country will change. The history has witnessed that the development of human society can be deemed as the evolution of power structure which plays a decisive role in the state power.In order to carry out the spirit of the Eighteenth National Congress of the Communist Party of China and the Third Plenary Session of Eighteenth Central Committee and to promote the reform of the political system and build a clean government with more political courage and wisdom, the following political problems should be taken into consideration:to trace the history of the Communist Party of the Soviet Union, making it clear that how Communist Party of the Soviet Union is developed, improved and disintegrated; to analyze the fundamental reason why the Communist Party of the Soviet Union was finally broken up and its important influence; to make it understood that the joint power of decision-making, execution and supervision has its own characteristics and influence on the history of CPC; to build a triangle power structure that is fuller, more substantial and more characteristic than the Separation of the Three Powers in western Countries to balance the power. To be more precise, the triangle power structure refers to the separation of the decision-making power, executive power and the power of supervision. The Party Congress, which has the highest power of decision-making and the legislative power, votes two balanced Party organs, namely the executive organ and the supervision organs among which the supervision organs is in supervision of the executive organ, forming a "system cage" with power structure as the core to cope with corruption.This paper is composed of three parts, i. e., introduction, body and conclusion.The first part gives a brief introduction of the paper, including the origin of the title, the meaning of the research, the present situation of the research at home and abroad, some relevant definitions, the organization and methods of the research, the main content and some innovative points.The body includes seven chapters, dealing with the following points. The period in which the CPSU was in power for seventy-four years can be divided into three parts under the guidance of the theories and power construction of Marxist Party. An analysis is given to the period which was ruled by Lenin and Stalin respectively and the period after Stalin lost power, the general theory about power structure, the first formation and reform of the power construction in Lenin’s period, its formation and development in Stalin’s period, its change, consolidation and disintegration after Stalin period, an analysis of the characteristics of the integration of three powers, including decision-making power, executive power and the power of supervision, and the influence on the history of power construction in China.The first chapter focuses on the basic theories of power structure. An exploration was made to deal with the definition and classification of power structure and its scientific pattern and evolution based upon some theories, including politics, management, system theory, cybernetics and mechanics. The power structure can be divided into several types:fruit power structure and tree power structure, triangle power structure and non-triangle power structure, the integration of the three powers and the separation of the three powers, etc. It is really important that whether the scientific pattern of power structure is a kind of power with three-dimensional shape, a balanced shape or a kind of stable power with a triangle shape. According to the law on the development of human society, the change of the nature is a result of the shift of structure. Therefore, the change of power structure results in the evolution of social system.The second chapter describes the transformation of CPSU power structure from "Combination of legislative and executive powers" to "Separation of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" during the Lenin’s reign. This thesis claims that Lenin is the pioneer of both socialism physical form and power morphology of the ruling party in socialist countries. In the beginning of Lenin’s administration, facing wars and revolutions, hostile environment with counterattack and siege from domestic and foreign enemies, and the Russian Communist Party (Bolshevik)’s complex situation with hastily established government and not so many experienced cadres, he implemented a lot of policies, based on "combination of legislative and executive powers" of Paris Commune. The national policy was military communism. The system of leadership newly established "Combination of legislative and executive powers", the wartime power structures. Organizational system shifted from general election system to the controlled. And commune career continued in another environment and conditions. However, Lenin realized that "Combination of legislative and executive powers" structure might lead to the risk of "Resurrection of bureaucracy","political IOU maturity". As a result, he transformed military communism to the new economic policy,"Combination of legislative and executive powers" to "Separation of decision-making, execution and supervision powers". He also originally created the isosceles triangle of decision-making, execution and supervision power in proletariat party, fundamentally reformed party’s ruling power structure. It specially put emphasis on "maximum independence" of Central Control Commission, checks and balances of Politburo of the central Committee, General Secretary and the Central Committee, and also on political considerations of Stalin and his position in the party and state power structures. All the policies become proletarian’s glorious heritage in ruling power structure reform and scientific socialist construction. Chapter Three explains formation and curing of power structure pattern-"Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" during Stalin’s reign. This thesis insists that Stalin is the generator of this power structure pattern. During Stalin’s reign, the basic system of the country’s industrialization and modernization has been built up and victory in the Great Patriotic War has been achieved, accumulating a very substantial governing resources and system bonus for the CPSU, but obscuring the congenital malformations of this power structure. Stalin interrupted Lenin’s New Economic Policy and the power structures of isosceles triangle, turning Lenin’s "Combination of legislative and executive powers" into "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers". He blurred and substituted the decision-making power of National Party Congress, weakening or even dissimilating the right of supervision of concerned authority. He had supremacy over the Politburo, Secretariat and other central authorities, and comprehensively monopolizing party, state and social power, military and political power and decision-making, execution and supervision of power. As a result, the power structure of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" and the "Number one" system with unlimited powers took shape. Meanwhile, he solidified "management layer" of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" through the rating system of investiture, its "night watchman" through the bureaucratic system privileges; its "uniformity" through "red Terror", its "religious master" through apotheosis, thus generating the first power structure pattern of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" in the ruling party of the proletariat and the socialist countries. At the same time, Stalin forcibly popularized this pattern to eastern European countries.Chapter four explains the reflection, rebound, curing and defeat of CPSU’s power structure mode during the Stalin’s late reign. The thesis insists that during Khrushchev’s administration, although some reforms had been carried out partially, such as reviewing and vindicating activities, exposing and criticizing the personality cult towards Stalin, staff rotation and tenure system, against privilege phenomena and behavior, party-government oversight system and people’s livelihood construction, he could not find and was unwilling to touch the "Excessive concentration of power-the main cause of troubles. He always made tautology in the stereotype of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers", engaging in personal totalitarian system, ranking investiture system, personality cult, power struggle within the party, hegemony of large Congress and party. As a result, he struggled in power but the government is pulled down. During the eighteen years of administration, Leonid Brezhnev maintained stability, suppressed changes, prohibited reforms, regressed Stalinist power structure to polarization mode, polarized "Number one system" by civil Administration and army defense, exported "Soviet model" and its power structure to the world by hegemony, cultivated vested interest groups and reform hindering mechanism of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" by rating system of investiture and life tenure. He also missed the best time for Communist Party of the Soviet Union (CPSU) to transit from revolutionary Party to ruling party, from revolutionary power structure to ruling power structure, from bonus period of administration to deficit period. After more than two-year transitional period of Andropov and Chernenko, three consecutive leaders in CPSU conducted life tenure of leading posts as Stalin did. To the reign of Mikhail Gorbachev, the CPSU and the country began to witness the full-blown crisis. Then, he hastily put forward "new concept" of openness, democracy and diversity, carried out reform in power structure, which radically ignored "main cause of troubles". But the reform lacked top-level design and grassroots experiment, and also had no enough top intelligence and capabilities to lead the reform, resulting in the super-presidential system and rating system of investiture of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers". Late configuration supervision reform was powerless, and ultimately absolute power and corrupts were defeated-"Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" power structure mode finally went bankrupt, so did the party and the country.The fifth chapter analyses the nature and detriment of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers", regarding it as a wartime power structure with "Excessive concentration of power"; a totalitarian leader system inconsistent with human’s overall and free development; a personnel managing system with violation of "Three Law". What’s more, this chapter concludes its drawback from four aspects, namely the main cause of trouble "Excessive concentration of power", the main illness "ranking investiture system in personnel management", the total dilemma "unachieved checks and balances", a foregone outcome "an absolute monopoly of power and corruption". It also explains and analyzes the detriments of institutional barriers of ranking investiture system in personnel management, including the technology detriment in the key to modern society from feudal society, the morality detriment in the legitimacy of a few people’s monopoly power instead of "rights granted by the people", the ability detriment in the line of cultivating cadres as "Wu Dalang shop", and the global detriment derived from "no talents responsible for the world". Besides the above content, this chapter also describes the serious harm of CPSU’s power structure mode,such as an imbalance of power configurations, democracy undermining, oversight blurring; a totalitarian system with "top leaders" produced a spirit-scattered "tyrant", an independent kingdom, and various interest groups; continuing to nurture and copy beneficiaries, night watchman and gravedigger of old system the old power structure; constantly opening of "Wu Dalang shop", making the ruling team into a trap of mediocrity; causing"short board" to restrict "long board","Aetna"to leave "Earth", and ultimately no one is incompetently responsible for "world", so as to reveal its historical inevitability and inner logic of the failure of CPSU.The sixth chapter is the combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers structure’s historical influence and reform suggestions to the Chinese Communist Party power structure. The paper holds the view that, the combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers structure has a great effect on the reform of CPC power structure. In terms of theory, the CPC has always put the Lenin theory as the guiding ideology of the party, and even taken Stalin’s theory as the guidelines of the party; In terms of the organizational structure, the CPC was the regional party organizations at a lower level under the leadership or control of Comintern and CPSU guidance; In terms of system and mechanism, the CPC basically copied and used the CPSU’s supervision power configuration mode for a long time, forming the decades-old consubstantial supervision system. In terms of development road, the CPC found its party, country and state coping the "Soviet model", also followed the city-centered revolutionary road, the reform and transition with great leap and structure of highly-centralized planned economy; In terms of talents, the CPSU trained a large number of leading cadres and professional personnel for the CPC, but it’s candidates system affected the CPC greatly.The seventh chapter proposes the ideas and suggestions of the CPC’s power structure reform. The thesis summarizes the CPC s essential stipulation to push forward the reform of power structure conditions, namely, the scientific guidance of the Marxism’s power structure theory, the effective accumulation of the CPC s structure construction, the abundant nourishment of China’s feudal society’s power structure construction and the plight lessons from the capitalism’s separation of power structure. At the same time, the thesis proposes the ideas and suggestions of the CPC’s power structure reform. We should, based on the spirit of the Eighteenth National Congress and the Third Plenary Session of the18th Central Committee of the Communist, speed up the reform of top-level power structure design, reform the power structure to promote the Chinese Communist Party from a revolutionary party to the ruling party’s transformation, establish the political system reform of county experiment area on power structure as the core, construct the theory of international context structural power with Chinese characteristics and push on the modernization of the national management system and management ability. Through the analysis and research of the full text, four conclusions are made:dysfunctional structure of "excessive concentration of power" is the reform theme of Lenin in his late years, the main causes of national subjugation of CPSU and the first core sign of "Combination of decision-making, execution and supervision powers" structure; Organization system of ranking investiture system is the accelerator of "social public servant into social master", is the crux of its weakening, disabilities of ruling managing and no talents for "the world", so the second core mark of power structure model; CPC’s current power structure bears the obvious character of "Soviet model"; CPC s time and conditions to reform the power structure has come. We must take their failure as an important reference in CPC’s governing and rejuvenating the country, and a textbook for the whole party to study, speed up the "system cage" which takes construction of the power structure as its core to show CPC’s confidence and target of power structure reform.