The Publicity of Public Policy and its Achievement
|School||Shanghai Jiaotong University|
|Course||Marxism in China|
|Keywords||public administration public policy publicity|
Publicity firstly is a philosophical concept, aiming at interpreting the nature of human being and is highly multi-meaningful. Publicity at the level of political philosophy cherishes the basic values such as independence, freedom, equality and dignity, values the citizens’ involvement and innovation in public affairs, and values public interests and good public lives as well. The publicity of public policy is the implementation of the politics and philosophy-level publicity in the field of public policy, with its nature being the implementation of the humanity and value rationality in that field. So, it is necessary to explore the theory root of publicity from the perspectives of philosophy and politics. Only by obtaining different theoretical resources from history can we grasp its full connotations well and guide both the academic and practical activities of public policy.The publicity of public policy is shown in its social functions that influence civil rights. The public policies with publicity should have three basic social functions, namely equally distributing public resources, promoting public participation in public affairs and ensuring public interests, which are the three dimensions to analyze the publicity of public policy. To distribute public resources equally is to meet the needs of different people according to their different conditions, thus to maintain dignity. Citizens have the rights to take part in public activities, to show their own quests, and to host rational conversations and communications, thus to make public policies that are acceptable to all sides. Those doings by the citizens themselves are important natures of democracy of public policies. Public interests are not simply the sum of private interests, but are distillation of private interests and are the necessary conditions for the all-round development of human beings.The public policy makers shall implement their value rationality in the process of public policy making. The policy topics should be extracted from the public, and the common peoples’opinions shall be involved in this process. By doing this, the mutual opinions may be found and the private interests and public interests are both protected. Deliberation has advantages that liberal democracy does not have, is capable of balancing different sides’interests and promoting effective democracy. The goals of public policy should be set according to its surroundings. The characters of non-competition, no-exclusiveness of public policy should be adjusted in policy practice for ensuring the balance, accordance and harmony between private interests and public interests. The policy tools influence its contents in fact, so the value dimension of public policy should be emphasized.Implementation of public policy is far from value-neutral, because the implementers influence and even change the public policies themselves through their discretion. The limitedness of human rationality and restriction of administrative background result in the necessity of having discretion for public administrative personnel. The proper exercising of discretion is the precondition for both the effective enforcement of public policy and the achievement of the publicity of public policy. When facing the contradiction of objective obligations and subjective obligations, the policy implementers should respect and ensure the priority of the basic values. So, the public administrative personnel should cultivate independent administrative personality, keep in mind that human being is to be put at the central place.The function and purpose of evaluation of public policy goes far beyond ending the policy circle. The more important purpose of it is to provide base and criterion for the making and enforcing of public policy, and to adjust the forerunners and guide those to come. It is necessary to evaluate the public policy by the extent to which the policy results meet the direct goals set at first, and it is more necessary to watch the public policy according to its influence on building a fair and reasonable society, combining the fact-evaluating way and value-evaluating way together. Effective fact evaluation set base for value evaluation, while complex value evaluation deepens fact evaluation.To achieve the publicity of public policy needs a good public administrative culture, whose core is the public spirit for the public administrative personnel and the citizenship spirit for the public. It is necessary to optimize the assessment system of public administration to lead the value of public administration to a fair and just direction. Public administration personnel should internalize the constitution as their guide, for it covers all the basic values of a country. Education of administration ethics can make up for the disadvantages of the laws and regulations. All these elements make the soft background helpful for achieving the publicity of public policy.