On Hart’s Thought of Tariff
|Course||Modern Chinese History|
|Keywords||Hurd Tariffs thinking Fair Determine Convenience Save|
Hurd served as Qing China 's General Administration of Customs , Tax Division for nearly half a century , foreigners one of the greatest impact on modern Chinese . Customs affairs , to participate in China's domestic and foreign policy , has had a greater influence on the development of modern Chinese society . Hart during the management of China Customs , China 's tariff revenue grew nearly sevenfold , the Qing government to maintain the beleaguered situation \Hurd governance Customs , the introduction of modern technology and management experience in the West to achieve a clean and efficient customs for the China Customs Modernization larger supportive . So far , despite academia have done a lot of exposition , but the of Hurd tariff thinking yet Discussion and designed . Hurd the tariffs thinking both inheritance and development of Adam Smith's \In this paper, based on the National Tax Principles investigated Hurd recommendations and practice Hurd 's tariff thinking visitation from the outside in , and hope to provide useful lessons for the modern Chinese customs and administrative organs of management . In addition to the introduction and conclusion , this paper is divided into five parts . The introduction elaborated reason , the range of topics , research status and significance . The first part , introduced Hurd 's Birthplace , as well as the family, school , and social environment for youth Hurd . The second part , investigated Hurd preventing smuggling , uniform and foreign Tariff , agreed in foreign about the activities , reveals Hurd tariff \The third part of the late Qing Dynasty customs taxes, tariff established , revealing Hurd tariff OK principles . The fourth part of the study of the late Qing Dynasty Customs to improve efficiency , according to local conditions , and other measures to reveal Hart tariff convenience principle \The fifth part , analysis of the late Qing Customs high salary, accounting , auditing and other the system reveals Hurd tariff \I the On section summarizes the achievements and the problems of the late Qing Dynasty Customs pointed Hurd tariffs thinking under the guidance of the late Qing Dynasty Customs tariff fair under the treaty regime , only to realize . The modernization of the Chinese Customs , only in an independent case , by the Chinese people themselves to complete .