Criticism and Beyond: The Evolution of Marxist Labor Thought
|School||Southwest University of Political Science|
|Course||The philosophy of Marxism|
|Keywords||labor alienated labor wage-earners free labor people’s free and comprehensive development|
More than 160 years ago, Marx found the labor history of the development of understanding of human history and social history of the keys, led to the discovery of two major theoretical results, so he called the social work of rotating around the "sun." Humanity since its inception, the vast majority is engaged in various activities of workers labor. There is no worker’s labor, human beings can not survive and develop. Labor is the essence of human activity, labor is also a human creation of social material wealth and spiritual wealth of activities, in Marx’s theory, labor is placed based on origin and even center. Engels’s "Labor in the transition from ape to man in the process of role" is an instance of a more detailed paper demonstrates the fundamental role of labor. "Alienation of labor" theory of Marx in his book, "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844" made a very important theory in the course of Marx’s intellectual development occupies a special position is the way Marx’s mature thought of a major step. But the alienation Marx’s labor theory of thought is an immature, which is also affected by the impact of Feuerbach’s humanism deeply. In Marx’s research career, with the deepening of capitalist social studies, "labor" has some form of change. Compared to alienated labor, Marx also on wage labor and free labor theory, free labor is a perfect form of Marx’s Labor thinking. The development of ideas of Marx’s work is also presents the development of a progressive trend of the evolution of thought is labor from low to high progressive development. Marx will be made on the division of labor, Thompson also made his point, he believes that "human labor There are three ways: first, direct or indirect forced labor; second, in the case of unrestricted individual competition carried out by labor; Third, the mutual cooperation of labor.”The first is pre-bourgeois society or the feudal slave labor; second, under the conditions of bourgeois society of labor; finally sure the future of his new work methods. Not only in the way the division of labor, but also in the study of Marx’s labor, such as: alienation of labor and wage labor are the same, and wage labor whether it is the deepening alienation of labor and free labor studies have proposed different views.In response to these different points of view, this article from the point of view of criticism and beyond the two comb Marx’s labor of thought, ideas surrounding the evolution of Marx’s labor to begin. In this paper, based on "Marx and Engels," the representation of book, "Economic and Philosophical Manuscripts of 1844", "Economic Manuscripts 1857-1858" and "Das Capital" based on the use of the Marxist dialectical way of thinking, dialectical interpretation of Marx’s labor ideology. In accordance with the basis of Marx’s original works for the National Labor economists and Hegel on the number of erroneous views and criticize it, straighten out the private property and alienation of labor relations and in the alienation of labor and wage-earners are not the same in this point of view, start with the famous scholar Yu Wu jin inconsistent point of view, and then re-raise wage labor is the deepening alienation of labor to this view. Finally, the article discusses the third part of Marx’s views on free labor. After emerging from the study on the text of Marx’s idea of labor after a previous study was criticized and later beyond. I also followed Marx’s idea of this study, the Western Marxist critique of some erroneous viewpoints, in the alienation of labor and wage labor relations are conducted beyond. The nature of the theme for the study, this research method adopted is mainly thinking of the Marxist dialectical method, research method and analysis of the text comparison.This paper is divided into five parts.Introduction, first outlined the life of Marx, Engels and Marx’s point of view of labor’s views on labor; second describes the labor point of view, some scholars at home and abroad and its impact on the views of Marx’s labor point of view; Marx once described raised in academic research on the alienation of labor, wage-labor and free labor exposition; and finally in the new era of labor discussed the emergence of some new changes, and ultimately to establish free labor is what people seek the perfect state of labor, free labor will be able to achieve human freedom overall development.The first part of the alienation of labor: the seeds of Marx’s labor ideology. First set of national economists on labor is the source of all wealth creation and Hegel for labor is conclusive evidence of self-realization, and then discusses Marx’s critique of these two perspectives. Second, the introduction of private property and alienation of labor relations, first introduced what is alienation? Re-introduced the discussion of Marx’s labor in the "Economics of Political Science in 1844 manuscript" within the meaning of alienation in Marx’s work is the alienation of labor is alienation. Then with the alienation of labor is only found in private ownership? Ask such a tone, brings out Marx believed that alienation of labor is only found in private ownership in this point of view.Second part of the wage-labor: Marx’s mature period of the basic concepts of labor ideology. First of all pointed out that the alienation of labor and wage labor is the same, which is in contrast to Marx’s notion of the capitalist era of labor made conclusions. And then discusses why the two are not the same? This is the full text of the innovations in the country’s well-known scholar Yu Wu jin Marx seems to maturity often use a "wage labor" concept and the use of youth Marxist "alienation of labor" in Although the concept of different title, its essence is identical. Professor Yu for this view to make some different points of view, pointing out that the two is not the same reason. Discussed once again alienated labor and wage labor: It is the premise or deepened? While the alienation of labor in detail study of capitalism in Marx’s work career at a very high position, but the wage-labor is for the deepening alienation of labor. Finally, "Economic Manuscripts 1857-1858" and "Das Capital" in the wage labor, these two articles in the wage labor are also somewhat different.The third part of the free labor: the all-round emancipation symbol. Start by describing the premise of wage labor is free labor, Marx only criticized the wage-earners will be able to free labor. Followed by discussion of labor freedom and freedom of labor, which is a difference between the two, labor freedom does not mean that free labor, free labor advocates criticize Marx was the realization of freedom of labor, labor freedom is not true freedom of labor to free labor in the state but a kind of distortion. In Marx’s view, freedom and human labor is free and comprehensive development coincides. Marx’s study of free labor capitalism is bound to be demonstrated to replace the historical trend of communism in the future communist society in the realm of freedom in human society has sufficient free time form, adequate access to free time is the need to rely on labor time the reduction can be achieved, and communist society to enable people to achieve free and comprehensive development, while also achieving the full liberation. Finally set free labor content of its implementation.Part IV, Conclusion. I mainly discussed the meaning of free labor, and its emergence in the new era of new changes in its free and comprehensive development of mankind brought about by importance.