Effects of Water Soluble Alfalfa Polysaccharides on Growth Performance and Immune Functions of Broilers
|School||Chinese Academy of Agricultural Sciences|
|Course||Animal Nutrition and Feed Science|
|Keywords||Water - soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa Broilers Growth performance Immune Performance|
The polysaccharide is ubiquitous in animals, plants, algae and micro-organisms of a class of natural macromolecular material, a major component of the living organism. It has been confirmed that the polysaccharides have immunomodulatory, anti-bacterial, anti-tumor, anti-viral, anti-oxidation, anti-thrombotic, anti-clotting, lowering blood sugar, cholesterol, and so a variety of biological functions, now study polysaccharides immunomodulatory effects . Polysaccharides can be divided according to the source plant polysaccharides, fungal polysaccharides, seaweed polysaccharides, animal polysaccharides, bacterial polysaccharides five plant polysaccharides because of their wide range of sources, the exact effect of natural, has increasingly been valued. A large number of tests to prove that, with a wide range of biological activity of plant polysaccharides, the prevalence of immune regulation. This study in the domestic and foreign scholars on the basis of the research of plant polysaccharides extracted from a wide range of resources alfalfa water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa (Water Soluble Alfalfa Polysaccharides, WSAP) extraction tests were carried out in the factory and laboratory conditions, and through dietary supplementation and in vitro lymphocyte culture the WSAP supplementation on growth performance and immune function were studied. Test: Extraction and Content Determination of water-soluble alfalfa polysaccharide yield and the content of water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa (WSAP) extraction environment differences, in order to further study the biological function of WSAP and industrial scale production of WSAP provide experimental basis. The test laboratories and factories under different conditions using the WSAP water extraction and alcohol precipitation method deproteinized extract. (1) in the laboratory to extract WSAP high voltage (120 ~ 150kPa) boiling water extraction for 2 times, each time the extraction time is 1h twice extraction solid-liquid ratio were 1:3 and 1:2, when the effect of better; atmospheric boiling in the factory extraction process, water extraction for two times, each time the extraction time was 1 h, twice extraction solid-liquid ratio were 1:8 and 1:6 better. (2) under laboratory conditions WSAP extraction rate and were significantly higher than in factory conditions, under laboratory conditions WSAP extraction rate of 10.75%, and 5.72% in the factory; laboratory extracted the WSAP content of 82.13%, 45.84% factory. Analysis of WSAP extraction rate and content of differences in the two extraction conditions may be because of the raw material (1) under laboratory conditions pulverizing a high degree of the polysaccharide may cause a higher extraction rate; Further, in a large number of water extraction in liquid plant extraction with the dregs loss, which may be one of the important reasons extract the WSAP extract low at the factory. WSAP water extraction (2) factory conditions to extract the high mineral content in the groundwater, the coarse ash content (29.49%) is much higher than the laboratory to extract the WSAP crude ash content (6.24%). (3) Laboratory WSAP extract deproteinized destination more accurately judge more thoroughly, protein elution, the crude protein content (5.99%) is also lower than the factory to extract the WSAP crude protein content (13.98%). These results indicate that the extraction condition may be interested in the extraction rate and content of the polysaccharide produce significant differences, suggesting that in the actual production and experimental optimization the polysaccharide extraction process, not only to consider the extraction step of the extraction and concentration in the collection of raw materials reasonable use and processing, extraction reagent and extraction device should also be studied to improve, in order to take advantage of the lowest energy costs to get the highest yield. Test: add water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa diet supplementation on growth performance and immune performance test select 1-day-old broilers 240 healthy male chicks, research diets supplemented with water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa (WSAP) supplementation on growth Performance and Immunity. Broilers were randomly divided into eight different amount of treatment (the control group and seven WSAP group) for each treatment three replicates of 10 chickens. The test is divided into two phases, 0 to three weeks for the trial early, 4 to 6 weeks late for the trial, growth performance and immune performance indicators will be measured. The results show that: (1) the pilot phase, WSAP dosage of 500 mg / kg while the average weight of the broilers, average daily gain was significantly higher than that in the control group (P lt; 0.05), feed conversion rate significantly lower than that of the control group ( P lt; 0.05). (2) add the the WSAP group of a certain dose of broilers. Significantly improve broiler immune organ index, significantly improve the Newcastle disease antibody titer and serum immunoglobulin IgG levels, promotion of peripheral blood T and B lymphocyte proliferation (P lt; 0.05), and WSAP added amount of the 500mg/kg effect. These results suggest that diets supplemented with a certain dose the WSAP can significantly promote the broiler growth performance and immune performance, and the best dosage 500mg/kg when diet. Test: water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa on Broiler T, B lymphocyte proliferation in vitro to investigate the water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa (WSAP) lymphocyte proliferation in vitro broilers. In this study, different concentrations the WSAP were added to in vitro stimulation with concanavalin A (ConA) broiler peripheral blood, thymus, spleen lymphocytes stimulated with bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) broiler peripheral blood spleen and bursa lymphocytes cultured for 48 h with methyl thiazolyl tetrazolium (MTT) colorimetric determination of changes in lymphocyte proliferation. (1) In this test, WSAP within lymphocyte proliferative capacity of each dose group in a certain concentration range (4μg/mL ~ 20μg/mL) higher than the control group, and as the polysaccharide concentration increases, the value is increased first (1μg/mL ~ 20μg/mL) reduce (100μg/mL ~ 200μg/mL). (2) with different concentrations the WSAP of broilers in peripheral blood and immune organ stimulus intensity, same-day-old broilers peripheral blood and spleen T and B lymphocyte proliferative capacity, respectively, less than the thymus and bursa proliferative capacity. (3) WSAP optimal stimulation of the peripheral blood of the same-day-old broilers and different immune organs concentration optimal stimulation of peripheral blood concentration of 20μg/mL spleen as 8μg/mL, bursa of Fabricius and thymus as 15μg/mL. This trial the WSAP of broilers in vitro lymphocyte proliferation stimulus the concentration in 8μg/mL 15μg/mL when at concentration of 20μg/mL for better, these results show that a certain concentration the WSAP can promote broiler lymphocyte proliferation, and the presence of certain dose-and tissue-specific. Test: water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa broilers lymphocytes immunomodulatory role water-soluble polysaccharides from Alfalfa (WSAP) to investigate the immunomodulatory role of lymphocytes in vitro broilers chemiluminescence signal molecule NO, cytokines IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ secretion as an index determined. This study different concentrations WSAP added to the broiler peripheral blood, thymus, spleen, bursa lymphocytes, lymphocyte chemiluminescence values ??measured by biochemical luminescence measuring instrument; isolated lymphocytes placed in a 24-well plate were cultured 24 h and then centrifuged supernatant NO content was measured by nitrate reductase; different concentrations WSAP in vitro broiler peripheral blood, thymus, spleen lymphocytes stimulated with concanavalin A (ConA) were added to the culture using double-antibody sandwich ELISA the centrifugal supernatant after 24h. The test results show that (1) a certain concentration of WSAP can be enhanced chemiluminescence broilers peripheral blood, spleen, thymus and bursa of Fabricius lymphocytes, can promote the various sources lymphocyte expression of NOS, iNOS activity, and to promote the generation of NO , able to stimulate the broiler peripheral blood, spleen, thymus lymphocytes secrete IL-2, IL-6 and IFN-γ, as the WSAP concentration increased, showing higher (1 to 20μg/mL) and then decreased (50 ~ 200μg / mL) of the law. (2) WSAP comprehensive indexes, WSAP optimal stimulation of peripheral blood concentration of 15 and at concentration of 20μg/mL for spleen as 8μg/mL, thymus for 15μg/mL different immune tissues and organs of the stimulus concentration. (3) 21-day-old broiler lymphocyte secretion of NO, NOS activity, IL-2, IL-6 secretion and sensitivity to WSAP were higher than the measurement results of the 42-day-old broiler indicators, but WSAP broilers lymphocytes stimulate the secretion of IFN-γ and contrary to this law. Comprehensive analysis WSAP concentration 8,15,20 μg / mL, it is possible to significantly promote broilers lymphocytes chemiluminescence can promote the various sources lymphocyte expression of NOS, iNOS activity, and to promote the production of NO, it is possible to stimulate the broiler peripheral blood, spleen, thymus lymphocytes secrete IL-2, IL-6, and IFN-γ, prompts the WSAP possible through these pathways to regulate broiler lymphocyte proliferation, thus achieving immunomodulatory effects on the body, is WSAP regulate the body one of the possible mechanisms of immunity.