Marx’s Land Property Rights Theory and Its Sinicization
|School||Central China Normal University|
|Course||Marxism in China|
|Keywords||Marx Land Property Rights Agricultural Land System Sinicization|
Land is one of the most basic and important means of production. According to classical political economy, the nature is the mother of wealth. Marx’s land property rights theory plays an important role in his vast ideological system, and this theory system includes powers and functions theory, unity and separation theory, capitalism land rent theory, socialist public land property rights theory, and so on. As the guiding ideology of the new China’s agricultural land system, Marx’s land property rights theory profoundly affects the agricultural land system reform and development of our country.Since the establishment of People’s Republic of China, the agricultural land ownership, in general, has experienced two stages:the farmer private ownership and the farmer collective land ownership. At each stage, Marx’s theory of property rights of land has left a deep imprint and affected the decision makers who made choices about the agricultural land system. At the same time, the decision makers, according to China’s concrete practice, develop Marx’s theory of land property rights at each stage, such as MAO Zedong’s theory of farmers’ land private ownership, the theory of agricultural cooperatives, and the people’s commune thought; Deng Xiaoping’s "two leap" thought on agriculture; Jiang Zemin’s new theory of household contract responsibility system and Hu Jintao’s. Combined with the practice in our country, Marx’s land property rights theory has produced fruitful theoretical fruits. That process vividly shows up the inheritance and development of Marxism property rights theory in China, and it is a masterpiece of "Marxism Sinicization".The cause of socialism with Chinese characteristics have no the ready-made experience to draw lessons from. After arduous exploration of several generations of leaders, China’s agricultural land system has played an important role in ensuring food security and social stability. But we can not deny that, there are still many problems in the current agricultural land system in our country, such as, the subject of the ownership is fuzzy; the property rights power is weak; the liquidity of property right is not strong; the land is severe finely; the system’s incentive function is insufficient. To solve these problems, academic circles put forward a variety of solutions, which include land privatization and nationalization. Marx’s land property rights theory inspires us that, the development of social economic form is a natural process, and the choice of any system cannot transcend social productivity development level. Land privatization violates the social nature of productivity; land nationalization is a social necessity, but it does not adapt to our biggest national condition that we are in the primary stage of socialism.Guided by Marx’s land property rights theory and its theoretical achievements of sinicization, and combined with the actual condition of our country, We should adhere to the agricultural collective land ownership, under which, we should strengthen the farmer’s right to the contracted management of land, clear the ownership of the land fatherly; regulate the land circulation and land expropriation in accordance with the requirements of the market; adhere to the market-oriented on the transfer of land contract right; chase cooperation trends in land management; lead farmers to the development road of modern agricultural development through the cooperative management.