A Study on the Competitiveness of Regional Specialized Agriculture in Gansu Province
|School||Gansu Agricultural University|
|Course||Crop Cultivation and Farming System|
|Keywords||Regional specialized agriculture industry competitiveness supply chain Gansu|
After30years of reform and opening up, China has walked out of a "domesticinvestment+commodity economy" growth path, the market economy system constructionimproved step by step. The agricultural product market already by the seller turns to thebuyer market market, the agricultural industry market transition completed, agriculture fromproducts to achieve common factors market regulation, the agricultural production materialalready realize the marketization, at present the labor market also basic configuration,through the land circulation, land elements into marketization disposition stage, and in thiscase, because the cause of the main body free operation, the market competition has become abasic form of agriculture production, with the rapid development of Chinese economy, fakebreakthrough in various forms of agricultural commodities production and circulation, eachlink, and at the same time, high-end innovation vigor is insufficient, the development of theeconomy can’t have very good supporting function, performance for lack of competitivenessof agricultural commodities. In several obvious regionalism feature of Gansu provinceagriculture has already begun to take shape, and on the basis of the competitiveness of theformation mechanism of discussed how to promote its competitive power and agriculture,Gansu province for the sustainable development of characteristic agriculture has importantpractical significance.This article from regional characteristic agricultural competitive contents andcomposition, the thesis analyzes the regional characteristic agriculture in Gansu province isthe competitive advantage, and based on this, the focus on the characteristic agriculturalproducts supply chain and the role in competitive area of influence factors of characteristicagricultural competitiveness, and through the Gansu several already has a competitivecharacteristic agriculture development typical case analysis, the preliminary that the regionalcharacteristic agricultural competitiveness forming process, and finally construct a logicalmodel explaining regional characteristic agricultural competitiveness formation mechanism.The main results are as follows:(1) through the area of Gansu province agriculture analysis of the advantages of the competition, and the results show that:①from resources endowment coefficient analysis, inGansu, in addition to the grapes, small grains, potatoes, beer barley, apple has strongcomparative advantages; From a market share analysis, small grains, potatoes, beer barleycompetitive advantages, apple, grape competitive advantage is not obvious.②from the costbenefit analysis, small grains, potatoes, apples, grape is significantly higher than the pureincome field crops, and has strong comparative advantage, beer barley seed corn and fieldbelow the irrigation area of corn, only than wheat is high, the production cost is too high,competitive advantage is not obvious.③scale advantage index from comparison, in Gansu,small grains, potatoes, beer barley, apple, grape the size advantage index are larger than1,show that compared with the national average, which will have a regional scale advantage;From efficiency advantage index analysis, in addition to the apples and grapes, small grains,potatoes and beer barley index are larger than1, that has the efficiency advantage; Accordingto the comprehensive comparative advantage index analysis, in addition to the grapes, severalother crops with comparative advantages are that the whole nation to have the competitiveadvantage.（2）Take forage grass industry in hexi region of Gansu province for example，cost andbenefit of interest subjects in two kinds alfalfa supply chains are analyzed, the results showthat:Regardless of which kind of alfalfa supply chain in, from the view of the amount of profitthat unit product gains, the profit division in supply chain is, households＞processingenterprises＞purchase merchants, and as alfalfa be processed deeply by enterprises,enterprise’s profits are continuously increasing, while households’ profits are continuouslydecreased, with the links of supply chain increasing, its marginal profit follows the declinelaw. If take cycle of getting profit into consideration, and use index of ratio of profit to cost tomeasure profit division from the perspective of comparative quantities, then processingenterprises＞households＞purchase merchants, but in the supply chain(supply chain A)that“households＋processing enterprises＋farms or feed-processing mills”，the profitdivision is balanced between each interest subject; and the ratio of profit to cost of supplychain A is higher than that of supply chain B, which is“households＋purchase merchants＋ processing enterprises＋farms or feed-processing mills”. When the material production costsbetween households and processing enterprises have little difference in supply chain A and B,the transaction costs (circulation costs) are the determinants of competitiveness, and thecirculation costs of supply chain B is higher than that of supply chain A, so, it shows thecompetitiveness of supply chain A is higher than that of supply chain B.Analysis of supply chain management from the view of cost-benefit, after supply chainA and B. being respectively regarded as ideal supply chain and discrete supply chain, andthrough analyzing balanced price formation of their respective whole supply chain, thetransaction costs of supply chain A is lower than that of supply chain B. On the other hand,because of the lack of mechanisms of responsibility sharing and profit sharing,as well as theincreasing of transaction links, the consumption、delay between links is inevitable increased,which makes the production costs of supply chain B are higher than that of supply chain A.Because of the accumulation of two factors above, supply chain A is more competitive thansupply chain B.In game analysis of benefit segmentation of alfalfa supply chain, this paper proposes6hypotheses, and builds a game model on this basis,and the boundary conditions of obtainingexcess profits of supply chain A was studied, which suggests that, in a one time static game,there is no cooperative behavior, and Nash Equilibrium does not necessarily lead to ParetoOptimality; In the repeated game, as long as the transaction times is enough., and cooperativetime is long,both processing enterprises and households will select cooperation strategy,that is: game model might result in Pareto Optimal solution, but when constraints are lack andprofits sharing is unequal, both processing enterprises and households will take breach ofcontract and speculation behavior, in this case, in order to decline opportunism risk, it isnecessary to introduce protocol restriction mechanism or take balanced profit divisionmechanism., that is, to influence the strategy selection of both sides in game by changing themode of payment. The first case is that when penalty is more than excess profits ofenterprises, and the second is processing enterprises is equal to excess profits of households.In the two cases above, the strategy combination:(cooperation, cooperation) is the optimalsolution for both sides, in the game matrix, which is also the unique Nash Equilibriumsolution. (3) The influencing factors of competitiveness of regional characteristic agriculture inGansu province are analyzed, the results show that:There are some comparative advantages in complex landform、multiple climatic typeand plentiful biological nature resource of Gansu province,and that provide basicconditions for the forming of the competitiveness of characteristic agriculture in GansuProvince.The level of income, cognition degree, age and education level have a positivecorrelation with consumption level of characteristic agricultural products, namely, as levels ofincome, education, cognition of nutrition value and health function of characteristicagricultural products improved, as well as age increasing, consumption demand forcharacteristic agricultural products of consumers will increase.Land scale, the proportion of income from characteristic agricultural products in relationto the total household income would have a positive correlation with the households’ will toexpand the extent and scale of planting. That is, the households’ will to expand the extent andscale of planting is increasing with the land scale expanding and income from characteristicagricultural products growing. Working situation is negative correlated with the households’will to expand the extent and scale of planting, Thai is, the less the number of go-outsidelabors in the family, households’ were more likely to expand the extent and scale of planting.In addition, analysis from the economy side of price elasticity and income elasticity, the mostimportant factor that whether the households are willing to expand the extent and scaleof planting is that: one is whether the households can obtain more profits; The other iswhether the households have the ability of undertaking risks after the scale expansion, such as,whether there are stable marketing channel or other alternative livelihood; The third is policyinfluence. As to the development thought and policy support for characteristic agriculture inGansu province, fair and just market environment build for development of characteristicagriculture is the external condition that having competitive advantage. The low degree ofsystematism is the main restrictive factor of characteristic agriculture’s competitivenessimproving.(4) By analysis of several typical characteristic agricultural industrializationdevelopment models in Gansu province, the results show that: They are having some very similar characteristics:①according to the survey of localagricultural natural environment, the leading agricultural industry has been identified;②afterthe transportation problem had solved, the industry has embarked on a rapid developmentpath;③their own brand has been established. The following problems exist in the businessmodel of characteristic agricultural industrialization in Gansu province:①the phenomenon ofdestroy orders are widespread;②the role of leading enterprises have being overemphasized,the construction and development of supporting industries, supporting facilities and servicesystem have being neglected, meanwhile, the cultivate of environment for the growth ofenterprises have being neglected; the vertical connection of agricultural industrial chain hasbeing emphasized, while the horizontal connection of each subject in the same link and theexternal economic effects brought by industrial agglomeration have being neglected, whichmake development of industrial lack the overall coordination;③the faming scale are bothsmall and dispersion, the leading enterprises are also weak and small;④the brand awarenessis not strong,the scientific management can not keep up, the quality of agricultural productsare not very good.(5)This paper summarizes the formed foundation of regionally characteristic agriculturalcompetitiveness on the basis of the above; firstly, agricultural resources endowment is theprerequisite that can form regionally characteristic agricultural competitiveness. Secondly,superior regionally agricultural institutional environment is the security that can formregionally characteristic agricultural competitiveness. Thirdly, agricultural producers withhigh quality play a supportive role in forming regionally characteristic agriculturalcompetitiveness. Fourthly, the operation ability of highly efficient supply chain is theperformance that can form regionally characteristic agricultural competitiveness. Throughanalysis the driven path about the formation of regionally characteristic agriculturalcompetitiveness, this paper structures the logical model about the formation mechanism ofregionally characteristic agricultural competitiveness, the equation is:C=f (S, P, A,E), amongthem, C refers to the regionally characteristic agricultural competitiveness, S equals to thestructure of competitiveness, P explains the assets of competitiveness, A explains regionallyagricultural producers,E explains the environment of competitiveness.