Research on the Effects on Transactional Leadership and Transofrmational Leadership on Employees’ Behavior
|Keywords||Transactional leadership Transformational leadership Leader-member exchange Organizational citizenship behavior Counter productive work behavior Work values|
The theory of leadership behavior and its mechanism of action has been a focuson the organizational behavior research.Transactional leadership and transformationalleadership is the new paradigm of leadership theory which was proposed by Bass. Butits concept, structure and function is likely to be different from culture to culture.Since Bass proposed that transformational leadership is based on the view oftransactional leadership, the research of scholars both at home and abroad are focuson transformational leadership theory. And a large number of studies in the domesticand overseas have shown the effectiveness of transformational leadership. But theresearch results about transactional leadership are uncertain, and they areinconsistency. In recent years, some domestic scholars begin to question the validityof the transformational leadership which featured by vision incentive which in theorganization in our country, which represented by Shi Kan and other domesticscholars who put forward the theory of point that "strengthen the research oftransactional leadership may be more suitable for the objective reality of China", andscholars such as Zhang Lihua also prove the validity of transactional leadership bysamples in the empirical analysis about civil servants. About these two kinds oftheoretical and empirical analysis on the localization of leadership in China remains tobe further in-depth study.In the face of the acceleration of the process of economic globalization,enterprises are faced with the competitive environment and lager uncertainty. Underthese circumstances, every enterprise managers have to think about such questions:How to choose the effective way to build a kind of specification and harmonyrelationship between leadership and subordinates? Does different styles of leadershiphave differences in effectively motivate staff’s potential, voluntary to give full play tothe organizational citizenship behavior and reduce or even eliminate the staff’scounterproductive behavior? Whether High quality-members of the leadership of theexchange plays a role in the process between leaderships and members? What effectsdoes the employees’ work value have about the relationship between the leadership’sstyle and the member’s behavior? Labor-intensive enterprises in China, especially the manufacturing line brain drain seriously, this is a very real management problems.Based on the above studies, some domestic and foreign academic journals,outstanding doctoral and master dissertations, academic conference papers and therelated literature achievements are all carried out in this paper. In addition, we areinspired and find some deficiencies at the same time. On the basis of a large numberof document research, this paper makes comparison and systematic study in theorywhich involved transactional and transformational leadership, leader-memberexchange, organizational citizenship behavior, the connotation of counterproductivework behavior, dimension, situational variables and effects, as well as thecomparative study of two kinds of leadership style. By constructing a theoreticalcomparison of rigorous research model, this research with447valid questionnairedata as the research object using SPSS16.0and LISREL8.7statistical analysissoftware to analysis the survey data. Mainly using the empirical research method suchas the descriptive statistics analysis, reliability analysis,validity analysis, correlationanalysis, regression analysis, structural equation and so on. On the basis of clarifyingthe connotation, the dimension and the influencing factors and mechanism, and thosewho have a profound influence on in our country is likely to be studied andcomparison by the empirical research method, in order to find out what kind ofleadership style is more suitable for local companies in China? Which aspect of thesetwo kinds of leadership style may be more effective to the enterprise employeebehavior?The above research perspective for the research of this thesis is provided by thegap between theoretical research and practical demand. The main research contents ofthis thesis are as follows:The first part is introduction. This part mainly expounds the realistic backgroundof the problem, the lack of relevant theory, how to solve the problem, then putsforward the research target and research methods, finally explains the logicalframework, technical route, the research contents and innovation points.The second part is the literature review. According to the comparative study oftransactional and transformational theory, organizational citizenship behavior andcounterproductive work behavior and work values, this paper reviewed the connotation and did some related dimension and measurement analysis in influencefactors and the function of research field. Because of the empirical studies of thecomparison of transactional and transformational theory, and the two kinds ofleadership theory under the action of the same intermediary variable effects is notperfect, so we put forward the research direction on this paper.The third part is building the research model. This part of content is on the basicresearches of the predecessors. It puts forward the hypothesis and constructs thetheoretical model study which based on the theoretical analysis.The fourth part is about studying and designing. In this part, it illustrates thedefinition of the independent variable and dependent variable, mediation variables,moderator variables, and scale selection and the compilation of questionnaire, scalepurification and other aspects of the analysis, lay the foundation for the fifth chapterformal investigation.The fifth part is the empirical analysis. This part is mainly from the formalresearch and scale test and transactional leadership and transformational leadershipeffects on employee behavior and other aspects of empirical analysis. Main analysistransactional and transformational leadership on organizational citizenship behaviorand counterproductive work behavior, transactional and transformational leadershipon leader-member exchange impact, leadership-member exchange intermediatorrole and the moderator role of work values.The sixth part is the research conclusion and expectation. This chapter firstsummarizes full text research conclusions. Secondly, it proposes managementsuggestions on the basis of theoretical analysis and empirical research achievements.Finally, it analyzes the existing problems of this study and makes sure thedevelopment trend of future research and further research areas.The main conclusions of this paper and the potential innovations have thefollowing three points:1.Analyzed the influence and difference of transactional leadership andtransformational leadership leader-member exchangeAs a more mature leader theory, there are many analyses and researches of thetransactional and transformational leadership. But among many studies, there is the rare research on the influence of differences between transactional andtransformational leadership to the leader-member exchange relationship. Andcompare the differences on predictive power between these two kinds of style ofleadership of leader-member exchange relationship. This study is the furthervalidation and perfection on this aspect.2.Analyzed the differences between transactional and transformational leadershipon organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductive work behaviorWhether there is a difference between these two kinds of leadership style, thetransformational and transactional, on organizational citizenship behavior andcounterproductive work behavior is need to be compared. With the abundant domesticcomparative studies of transactional and transformational leadership theory, it makesup for the insufficient of the different front variable comparative study to thecounterproductive behavior.3. Further investigated the regulating effect of work valuesWhether work values in transactional leadership and transformational leadershiphas a regulating role between the organizational citizenship behavior andcounterproductive work behavior of employees remain to be unsolved. This articlefurther validates the transactional and transformational leadership on productionmechanism of employees’ organizational citizenship behavior and counterproductivework behavior.The conclusions of this paper are as follows: First, transactional leadership andtransformational leadership have significant positive influence on leader-memberexchange, and transformational leadership effect is more significant. And amongvarious dimensions of transformational leadership, personalized care has the mostsignificant influence for leading members exchange; Second, transactional leadershipand transformational leadership have a positive impact on organizational citizenshipbehavior of employees, and they have significant negative effects on thecounterproductive behavior. In promoting organizational citizenship behavior andinhibiting effect against counterproductive behavior, transformational leadership isbetter than transactional leadership and the virtue and the effects of charismaticleadership is significant in the transformational leadership dimensions; Third, the leader-member exchange relationship is partial mediation variables betweentransactional leadership and transformational leadership and organizationalcitizenship behavior of the relationship; Fourth, two dimensions of comfort andsecurity, ability and growth in work values have significant adjusting influence ontransformational leadership between organizational citizenship behavior andcounterproductive behavior. Ability and growth dimension in work value havesignificant moderating effect on the transactional leadership and organizationalcitizenship behavior and counterproductive behavior relationship.The recommendations of this paper are: in the actual management ofmanufacturing enterprises, business managers can do particular analyses to particularcases. They can select the contingency of transactional and transformationalleadership, strengthen the quality of leader-member exchange, reasonably use thecharacteristics of rewards and punishments of transactional leadership to makeorganization rules, carry forward the vision of the transformational leadershipmotivation and personality characteristics, Charisma, personalized care and visionincentive features, in the light of its general trend to meet the needs of employees’work values of the attribute, give full play to their organizational citizenship behavior,and gradually eliminate hidden dangers and motivation of counterproductive behavior,then lay a good management foundation for the ascension of enterprise managementperformance.