The Study on Liu Zhiji’s Judgments of the Early Period of Tang Dynasty Historiography
|Course||History of Ancient China|
|Keywords||Liu Zhiji Shi Tong the early period of Tang Dynasty Historiography|
Of all China’s feudal societies, It is at the height of power and splendour during the period of Tang Dynasty. It is not only represented in the political, economic, and military aspects, but also in every aspect of the society. As one part of the culture, History has also obtained an unprecedented development. The historial monumental work Shi Tong is just one of the important representions in the development achievements of the Early Tang Dynasty history.Liu Zhiji is a well-known historian during the period of Tang Dynasty in China. He spent nearly his lifetime writing the monumental work of history - Shi Tong, it is the first comprehensive and systematic summary work in the previous history of the early Tang Dynasty. Not only do Shi Tong play an important theoretical role for historians, but it is also very helpful for the study of all prior history that before the early Tang Dynasty. Therefore, once been publishied, Shi Tong has attracted many scholars’attention, and then the scholars studied it from many different perspectives. According to the achievements of all studies, most of them were still staying on one aspect of the case study on Liu Zhiji and Shi Tong. However, to the study of Liu Zhiji on some dynasties’history, especially to the conclusions on Tang Dynasty of his living history, they are all blank and urgent in-depth not only to the study of Shi Tong but also to the research of Tang Dynasty history. In this paper, the author carries out a tentative inquiry on Liu Zhiji’s history ideas for Tang Dynasty history, First we summarized into the system of writing history, the historian’s literacy, the historical compilation, and the historical viewpoint of historians four aspects. On this basis,Beginning with some conclusions of Liu Zhiji’s views on the system of writing history, the historian’s literacy, the historical compilation, and the historical viewpoint of historians of the early days Tang Dynasty and the early history of Tang Dynasty.First, the praise and criticism of Liu Zhiji to the system of writing history during the Early of Tang Dynasty.Since ancient times, China has had a fine tradition of writing history. From the period of Chunqiu to this day, it has never stopped. The most important reason for this excellent tradition to be passed down and developed is the establishment, development of the historian system and the institution of writing history. In this historical process, With an extremely important position, not only did Tang Dynasty inherit the previous excellent tradition of writing history, but shaped and institutionalized the system of Shi Guan. But it established and perfected the system of Shi Guan for the first time. This plays an important significance and is an act of establlishing a connecting link between the preceding and the following on the development history of China’s history. In Shi Tong,first of all Liu Zhiji researched on the origin and evolution of the historian system of past dynasties, and at the same time, he praised and criticized on the building of the system of Shi Guan of Tang Dynasty. Next Liu Zhiji had a sharp criticism for the system of Shi Guan’disadvantages from transformations system and transformationsthe of the Early of Tang Dynasty.It have all helpful to perfect and promote the system of Shi Guan and the system of Shi Guan after Tang Dynasty.Second, the reflection of Liu Zhiji on the cultivation of historians during the Early of Tang Dynasty.The consciousness of the historian is the cultivation, this is an important part of the summary in Liu Zhiji’s history system, and it is also the soul and essence of Liu Zhiji’s historical theory. First of all, Liu Zhiji used "San Chang" theory of "talent, learning, knowledge"to the cultivation of historians during the Early of Tang Dynasty have the overall reflection in Shi Tong. He praised for historians with talent, and criticized historian without talent. Next he used "Zhi Bi" and "Qu Bi" theory to the cultivation of historians during the Early of Tang Dynasty have the reflection. And even touches the problem of " historian moral", this indicates his authentic knowledge and realization. However, Liu Zhiji could not escape the limitation of feudal historians, the thoughts of writing technique to meet Ming Jiao reflects his one-sidedness.Third, the discussion of Liu Zhiji to the historial books of the Early Tang Dynasty.Based on a more objective and fair precondition, Liu Zhiji discusses the historial books of Tang Dynasty with studying history books of the past dynasties. First of all, Liu Zhiji discusses the historial books of Tang Dynasty from classification, expounds "Zheng Shi" and "Za Shu" two sorts historial books of Tang Dynasty. Next, Liu Zhiji discusses the historial books of Tang Dynasty from style, analysises the historial books of Tang Dynasty of genre, style.Once more, Liu Zhiji discusses the historial books of Tang Dynasty from compilation, reviews the historial books of Tang Dynasty of historical data collected, historical compilation, historical narrative and so on. According to the summary comments of Liu Zhiji on the historial books of the early Tang Dynasty, not only do we have a more comprehensive understanding to historial books of Tang Dynasty, but also enriches the theory of Liu Zhiji’s history. Although with a narrow side, it is dialectical and pertinent as a whole.Fourth, the comments of Liu Zhiji on the historial view of the Early Tang Dynasty historian.Based on the unprecedented development of Tang Dynasty that had received in all sectors of the society, the historian has more profound understanding in history. Liu Zhiji comments on the historial view of the Early Tang Dynasty historian reflected in their history books. Frist of all, he was advocated mainly view of personnel in Heaven and Man view. So he criticaled bourne-based Heaven and Man view of the Early Tang Dynasty historian.Next, he thought that Ancient and Modern history is continuously developing and changing. So he criticaled rigid Ancient and Modern view of the Early Tang Dynasty historian. Once more Liu Zhiji had strict orthodox and unorthodox ideas on Orthodoxy issue. So he had praise follow the Orthodox historians and had criticized contrary to the Orthodox historians.Last, Liu Zhiji showed draw on ideas on Personality view.So, he had criticized that the Early Tang Dynasty historian didn’t meet his standard.most of its overall comments are objective and fair.