Returned Students and Institutionalization of Agriculture in Recent China (1896-1936)
|Course||Philosophy of Science and Technology|
|Keywords||returned students agriculture recent China institutionalization|
Returned students are of great importance during the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China. Returned students constitute the main group in the institutionalization of agriculture and play a key role through all progresses of the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China. Returned students are the main force for the introduction of western agricultural knowledge and the backbone at the development of higher agricultural education in recent China. They initiate main academic agricultural associations in recent China and found a wide range of agricultural periodicals, providing a platform for academic exchanges among the scientists. Returned students set up a number of research institutions of agriculture. It promotes the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China.This paper involves instruction, text and concluding remarks. The instruction is a systematic generalization of related research work on this subject domestic and abroad. It covers the research theme, framework contents, analytical methods, originalities points of this dissertation. The text is the main body of the paper, including three parts. The first chapter is the first part, discussing the form of the agriculturist group in recent China. The second part involves the second chapter, the third chapter and the forth chapter. This part discusses the role of the returned students in the institutionalization of agriculture. The third part including the fifth and sixth chapter, analyzes returned students and the agriculture knowledge’s spreading and international academic exchange.The first chapter mostly studies the number of returned students, the countries and colleges where they studied, the majors they had chosen. The conclusion is that returned students all came back to homeland after finishing learning, the proportion of the returned students agriculturist to all agriculturist in recent China is great high. And they are the main group at the development of agriculture in recent China. This chapter is the whole chapter’s base.The second chapter mainly studies returned students and the development of higher agricultural education in recent China. The chapter mainly analyzes the number of returned students as university teachers, returned students’ ideas about teaching and their textbooks. The conclusion is that the agriculture teachers’ 80% are returned students in modern China and returned students introduce many advanced ideas about teaching as well as write lots of practical textbooks who promote the perfection of the agriculture and establish the base of the institutionalization of agriculture.The third chapter mostly analyzes returned students and the foundation of main professional associations on agriculture in recent China. The chapter mainly analyzesthe associations’ main founder-members, administrators, main members and the activities. By above analyze, the chapter gets the conclusion that returned students are the main founder-members of the associations, they organize many scientific activities and publish the agricultural periodicals. These agricultural associations promote the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China.The forth chapter mainly studies returned students and the foundation of research institutes. The chapter mainly studies the founder and the productions of the research institutes. And the fact is that returned students are the core people of the research institutes who get series of productions and these research institutes exert important effect. The fouding of the Central Research Institute on Agriculture symbols the finish of the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China.The fifth chapter mostly studies returned students’ important productions and the productions’ popularization. This chapter analyzes two aspects including the returned students’ treatises and books and applied agricultural productions’ popularization. The conclusion is that returned students not only translate and write lots of treatises and books on modern agriculture but also popularize the productions to production in time which has a broad influence in recent China. The sixth chapter mainly studies returned students and the international academic exchange of agriculture in recent China. Returned students enhance the status of agriculture in recent China by the way of inviting foreign exports to China, attending international academic conferences, going abroad to investigating and so on.Concluding remarks sums up the whole paper. Via above analysis, it is known that returned students are not only the main group spreading agriculture knowledge but also the main force impulsing the institutionalization of agriculture in recent China. Returned students hold an important position in the history of modern agriculture in China. Using the history for reference, it is good for the development of Chinese modern agriculture.