A Study on Meta-cognitive Strategy Application and Autonomous Listening
|School||Shandong University of Science and Technology|
|Course||Foreign Linguistics and Applied Linguistics|
|Keywords||meta-cognitive strategy learner autonomy listening comprehension|
As one of the most frequently-used language skills, listening comprehension plays a very important role in daily communication and teaching process, and a defining role in facilitating language learning. Many researches have been conducted to improve listening skills and capacity. On one hand, it is suggested that becoming an autonomous listener can enhance their listening proficiency. On the other hand, it is argued that listening strategies are important factors to influence listening, especially autonomous listening. Without teachers’ instruction and monitoring, the students must manage their listening by themselves. Listening strategies become much more important, especially the meta-cognitive strategy which is used to monitor and evaluate cognitive strategy. Viewing listening as a cognitive skill, most researchers prefer O’Malley & Chamot’s classification of learning strategy and divide listening strategies into three categories, that is, meta-cognitive listening strategy, cognitive listening strategy and social/affective listening strategy. Among them, meta-cognitive strategy is the higher level strategy which includes several main sub-strategies: selective attention, planning, monitoring and evaluation.This paper gives a survey of meta-cognitive strategy application and learner autonomy in listening. The aim of the study is to investigate the application of meta-cognitive strategy and the levels of learner autonomy, to examine the relation between meta-cognitive strategy application, learner autonomy and listening improvement, and to make a contrast in meta-cognitive strategy application and learner autonomy of the students on different levels. Based on these, it also analyzes the characteristics of meta-cognitive strategy application in autonomous listening.The paper takes some of first-year non-English majors from Shandong Foreign Language Vocational College as sample. Three questionnaires and an interview have been conducted to investigate their grasping and application of meta-cognitive strategies in listening, learner autonomy and their performance of autonomous listening. The results of the questionnaires show: (1) The most frequently-used meta-cognitive strategies in listening are selective attention strategy and planning strategy, but because of lack of monitoring and systematic evaluating, the effect is not remarkable; (2) The students still depend on their teachers, with inadequate autonomy in listening. Thus, there are many rooms for them to improve their strategies and learner autonomy. The study also shows the defining influence of meta-cognitive strategy on cultivating learner autonomy and thereby enhancing listening proficiency and capacity. Based on the analysis of interview and strategy training, it is suggested that the students should improve their listening achievement and capacity by applying meta-cognitive strategy in autonomous listening. The teachers should realize their roles in autonomous listening and attach importance to cultivating students’ meta-cognition and meta-cognitive strategy so as to enhance learner autonomy and the efficiency of college listening teaching.