The Research on the Economical Mechanism for Water Pollution Control
|School||Southwestern University of Finance and Economics|
|Keywords||Water pollution Government Regulation Price mechanism Water Allocation Water Right|
Water pollution problems is not just a technical problem, it is an economic issue, we not only need to explore the generation of water pollutants, migration, degradation mechanisms, but also need to find an effective mechanism for water economy to the rational allocation of water resources, effective management of water pollution. For water pollution problems arise from the natural technical perspective, there are two natural water environment physicochemical characteristics: First, the water environment capacity, one water purification capacity. The so-called water environment capacity refers to the specific water quality does not deteriorate in its basic functions to affect their case can withstand the maximum amount of pollutants;-called water purification capacity, it refers to a particular water right into their internal purification ability of pollutants. Water environment to maintain its \Water has an economic scarcity, water environmental capacity, water purification capacity apparently also has an economic scarcity. In other words, if the water allocation is unreasonable, it will distort the water environmental capacity of water environment, water purification capacity configuration of two kinds of scarce economic resources, water pollution problems will inevitably occur. Therefore, the water pollution problem is actually water environmental capacity, water purification capacity two kinds of rational allocation of scarce economic resources issues. Even though we have a law-abiding businesses, and efficient operation of government and to ensure active public participation in business and government oversight mechanisms, an unavoidable problem is that the exercise of the highest executive authority to do if there is no national water resources management and planning (ie definition of property rights), water can not be allocated in a fair, efficient administrative regions in each allocated between the various administrative regions around the water property rights trading market can not be formed, but also because of the various administrative areas within the property vague and can not be formed within a unified regional water resources around the property market, which will lead to inefficient allocation of water resources, leading to water pollution problems can not be solved effectively. Water resources are public goods, and public goods configured either administrative or market price mechanism planned configuration configuration configuration failures of public goods are to some extent inevitably exist. Therefore, the failure of public goods configuration problem does not exist the most perfect solution means and methods. Such problems should be systematic and diversified, social conditions should be taken for different institutional arrangements according to local conditions, relying on institutional innovation to solve the problem. The failure of the Huaihe River pollution control of industrial water pollution control is a microcosm. For a long time, the exercise of the highest executive authority of the country does not have good water resources management and planning, making efficient pollution control in coordinated between the various administrative areas, and administrative regions, each administrative region did not form a unified internal The water pollution control mechanisms; while vague property makes our water resources between administrative regions, each administrative region within a unified waterworks property market, which directly led to inefficient allocation of water resources, which in turn makes the phenomenon of over-exploitation of water resources highlighted and increased water pollution governance is difficult; addition, two of the local government as a national authority emphasis is often placed short-term economic growth performance of the corresponding image of the neglect of environmental pollution control, coupled with our long-term lack of incentives, ensuring public participation in public affairs decision-making and supervision mechanism also makes it easy to deviate from the local government public interest leaving industrial water pollution problems which are difficult to get strong government control. Thesis is divided into six chapters, the first chapter introduces the thesis introduction significance of research contents, processes and methods, and thesis frame and innovation, on the whole paper with a summary. Chapter II - Analysis of Water Pollution in the theoretical basis of governance mechanisms, summed up the problem of domestic and foreign research methods, research scope and research results, the paper expects the status quo in this study on the basis of a breakthrough. The third, fourth, fifth and sixth chapters is the body of this article. Among them, the third chapter - Huaihe River Water Environment Pollution and treatment effect, this chapter will be in July 2004 outbreaks of the Huaihe River pollution limits designed to analyze the Huaihe River water pollution origin of the problem and his government in 2004 in response to the previous pollution policy measures, and the former government in 2004 to evaluate the effects of policies; Chapter IV - Huaihe River water pollution control failure cause analysis, the use of water resources allocation mechanism for property rights theory was discussed in an attempt to find out of the water environment pollution causes inefficient; Chapter - the experience of developed countries, water pollution, introduced the United Kingdom, the United States in particular on water pollution control practices, trying to summarize the water pollution control our country can learn from the successful experience. Chapter VI - perfect mechanism for water pollution control measures, the first few chapters based on the analysis of proposed measures to control water pollution proposal. This paper summarizes the governance of water pollution water pollution lessons and foreign successful experience that our water pollution control mechanisms fail for many reasons: one, the water property rights arrangements, definition of water rights lack of clarity led to the Chief of the allocation of water resources, water rights in the administrative instruction after the initial allocation under the guidance of market-based instruments can not be secondary circulation, which led to the monopoly of the right to use water resources, which led to the water users abuse of water resources, making water configuration failure; Second, water environment management system in our country, and our traditional planned economy system formed by the \points \improve significantly affected the efficiency of the allocation of water resources; Third, government regulation, and our lack of a unified water resources, the use of government regulation system, which led to the initial allocation of water resources, clean water, sewage treatment and disposal lose all sectors effective supervision, while water supply and demand as being rigid and inhibit the pure administration, which had hindered the development of water markets mature, resulting in water allocation failure; Fourth, in the public in environmental matters participation, the lack of protection of the public to participate effectively in environmental affairs mechanisms, environmental affairs asymmetry of information so that the public's rights are not respected. Therefore, the government needs to solve the main problems are: clearly defined water rights, building a sound environmental management of integrated water system. Among them, we should pay attention to water resources in China is clear property rights, make full use of the market economy by means of sewage enterprises to effectively regulate and establish effective public participation in environmental matters mechanisms.