Study on the Effects of Lotus-seed-paste Preparing and Baking Process Influencing the Qualities of Cantonese Lotus-seed-paste Moon Cakes
|School||South China University of Technology|
|Keywords||Cantonese lotus filling moon cake filling baking quality influencing factor|
In this paper, researches have been taken on the Cantonese lotus filling moon cakes.The quality change of lotus filling in different production stages were detected, and the mainfactors affecting the baking features of Cantonese moon cakes during the lotus fillingpreparation and cakes baking section were discussed as well in order to provide theoreticalbasis and data support for the large-scale production of Cantonese moon cakes. The mainresearch results are shown as follows.(1) Four types of Cantonese moon cakes’fillings were employed to figure out therelationship between the Sensory Evaluation and Texture Profile Analysis. Sensory evaluationwas conducted by texture profile inspection, and instrumental analysis was conducted by T.A.Plus (TPA). The data was analyzed by software SPSS17.0, where four parts of analysis couldbe completed, including Variance Analysis, Principal Component Analysis, CorrelationAnalysis, and Regression Analysis. The results showed that there were no significantdifferences in tightness and roughness among the four kinds of paste fillings. Three principalcomponents were obtained through Principal Component Analysis, and the first two of themcontributed 83.52% of variance. The correlation among sensory properties varied in a wildrange (r = -0.062~0.788). There existed some correlations between sensory evaluation andinstrument analysis results (r = -0.237~0.851). According to the correlation analysis resultsbetween sensory and instrument analysis, enter regression analysis was conducted bychoosing some main sensory indexes as the dependent variable, while some instrumentanalysis indexes as the independent variables. The predictive equations for hardness,cohesiveness, chewiness and stickness could be set up respectively from enter regressionanalysis to describe the relationship between the results of Sensory Evaluation and TextureProfile Analysis.(2) The changes of lotus seeds water content along time during the cooking processwere in accord with the following equation: y = 14.101 Ln (x) + 6.1832, R2 = 0.9752. Duringthe cooking process the hardness, fracturability, and chewiness resistance of lotus seedsreduced increasingly over time, while the recoverability, elasticity and cohesion of lotus seedschanged little. Due to the heat and mass transfer process and Maillard reaction in the cookingprocess of lotus filling, the moisture content, water activity, color difference, quality andstructure characteristics of lotus filling suffered various degree of change. The researchshowed that, in the process of lotus filling cooking, the change of moisture content along timecould be described by the equation y = 0.2712 x + 43.618, R2 = 0.9861. While the change of water activity alone time could be described by the equation y = 0.0016 x + 0.9546, R2 =0.9933; The brightness and red degree of lotus filling raised, and yellow degree decreasedafter rising; The hardness, springiness, cohesiveness, gumminess, and resilience increased,and its adhesiveness declined.(3) The gas heat tunnel-type baking ovens were employed as an example to discuss thequality and health security change of the lotus moon cakes during different baking periods.Effects of three different types of baking equipments (gas heat tunnel-type baking oven,electricity heat tunnel-type baking oven, and electricity heat cabinet oven) on the bakingfeatures of Cantonese moon cakes were compared. The results showed that water content inthe early baking period changed little; the pollution of baking process mainly took place in theoperation of brushing egg pulp, where the initial bacterium number of microbes can bereduced by 2 ~ 3 orders of magnitude. Baked by there different types of ovens, the wateractivity of all the moon cakes declined a little, and the main change of water activity tookplace in the lotus filling in gas heat oven, while in electricity heat oven it primarily occurredin the surface of cakes. The L* value of moon cake’s surface, side and underside droped, andthe red and yellow degrees increased after baked in 3 different kinds of ovens. There was nosignificant difference among baking in different ovens about Cohesiveness and Chewiness (P< 0.05). There was significant difference of hardness and elasticity between baking in a gasheat tunnel-type oven and in a electricity heat tunnel-type oven (P < 0.05), while nosignificant difference between baking in a gas heat tunnel-type oven and in a electricity heatcabinet type oven (P < 0.05). Compared with two baking equipments, the recoverability ofmoon cakes baked by gas heat oven displayed significant difference (P < 0.05). The mooncakes center temperature raised fastest when baked in a electricity heat cabinet type oven, andit reached to the highest 8 min after baking.