Analysis and Evaluation of the Current Status of Rice and Wheat Fertilization in Jiangsu Province
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Keywords||the status of fertilizer fertilizer yield increase of fertilization impact factor rice wheat Jiangsu province|
Fertilizer has been playing an important role in the development of the agriculture, in order to understand the current status of fertilizer application better, visiting farmers has been taken in Jiangsu province. Based on farmer survey data and the statistical data, the status of fertilizer application, the yield increase of fertilization and nutrient utilization efficiency for major cereal crops were analyzed and evaluated in this study, basing on restricting factors of high yield and high efficiency, some policy advice were also put forward in this study. The followings are the results:1) Compared with 80’s the amount of fertilizer consumption has been increased 2.2 times and tends to stable currently. Potash and compound fertilizer increased 103% and 48%, respectively. In consrtct, nitrogen and phosphorus consumption has increased slowly and towards stable from 1995 to 2008. The nitrogen consumption still was the largest and compound fertilizer was the second variety.2) Results presented that the overuse of fertilizer on farmers’field has happened in Jiangsu province. Under farmer condition, it was relatively higher N-fertilizer applicated than the result obtained by experts’experimentation in each region in agroecosystem of rice. However, the Partial factor productivity of applied N was lower. It was also found that 57%, 55% and 54% of excessive nitrogen fertilization existed in north, center and south of Jiangsu, respectively. Over and unreasonable fertilization has resulted in low yield increase, nutrient use efficiency and earning. At present, only 20% of farmers could achieve high yield and high efficiency. Accordingly, reducing N-fertilizer was the key for the potential of increasing production.3) Analysis and evaluation of yield increase of fertilization for rice was also carried out by agronomic efficiency. The result showed that there was significant difference in each region, because of the basic soil fertility, rice cultivars and the structure of fertilizer AEN was the highest in north of Jiangsu, but the south of Jiangsu was the lowest.About 40% of farmers applied fertilizer basic tillering account for 90%～100%of total fertilizer and 5% account for 30%～40%. There was a relationship between basic tillering and panicle proportion and grain yield, therefore it was practical and feasible approach to reduce the fertilizer investment and adjustment the basic tillering and panicle proportion to keep synchrony between nutrient demand and supply of soil and fertilizer.4) The phenomena was mainly resulted from less education years and training of farmers. In addition, both the utilization form of land and being short of organic fertilizer application resulted in excessive fertilizer utilization and low nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. In contrast, the earning level and age of main labor force did not significantly affected the nitrogen fertilizer efficiency. Through cooperation of researcher, extension, farmer and enterprise closely, technique of high yield and high efficiency for major corps can be carried out. Meanwhile, some suggestions were brought forward that building of extension system must be reinforced because of low diathesis farmer and distempered extension system.5) Owning to the difference of climate, wheat cultivars and tha basic soil fertility, there were significantly differences in N-fertilizer application and yield in agroecosystem of wheat among there regions. The average of N-fertilizer were 323.0 kg·hm-2,226.9 kg·hm-2 and 203.2 kg·hm-2; the yield of wheat were 6542.5 kg·hm-2,5720.1 kg·hm-2 and 4797.0 kg-hm"2 in north, center and south of Jiangsu, respectively. In addition,52% of excessive nitrogen fertilization existed in north of Jiangsu, the excessivenessly N-fertilizer application rates led to not only low nutrient, but also economic losses. Meanwhile, the over and unreasonable fertilization could not reach high production. Therefore reducing N-fertilizer and adjustment the basic tillering and panicle proportion, which was a vital way to enhance fertilizer use efficiency and wheat yield in Jiangsu province.