Study on the Formation of Yield and Quality for Different Genotypes of Faba Bean and Regulatory Mechanism
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Course||Crop Cultivation and Farming System|
|Keywords||Faba beans Genotypes Yield Quality Matter accumulation Photosynthesis physiology Topping|
Field experiment were carried out during 2008～2009 in the Jiangpu Experimental Station of Nanjing Agricultural University, with the test processing of seven differential genotypes of faba beans. These factors were tested for yield and quality characteristics, matter accumulation and transfer rules, the dynamic characteristics of photosynthetic performance. The main results are as follows:Among different genotypes, yield differences,and yield components differences were highly significant differences. The correlation analysis showed that yield was wery significantly positively correlated with effective branches number and seeds per pod, and was a significant positive correlation with effective seeds number per plant.The results show relatively more effective branches per plant to small grain genotypes, and less effective branches to large grain genotypes. It shows that all genotypes with high protein content is relatively low starch content. The content of protein and starch in grain is of lower in flower cluster section 5 than the flower cluster node 1. Starch content of mature seed in small grain genotypes is higher than large grain genotype. Protein content in large grain genotypes is higher than small grain genotypes, and green testa genotype is higher than white testa genotype.The initial time of rapid growth of dry matter accumulation in above-ground is about 15d～17d after anthesis in large grain and white testa genotype, and 12d～14d after anthesis in large grain and green testa and small grain genotypes. The peak time of rapid growth and time of critical end of the large grain genotype and green testa genotype are 22d～23d and 30d～32d after flowering,large grain white testa varieties B410 30d and 43d, the other varieties shows trends with different varieties; the maximum amount of dry matter accumulation were seen in about 50d after flowering, high yield genotypes continued rapid accumulation of dry matter accumulation per plant of the capacity of 95g or more. The rapid growth initial critical period of grain dry matter at white testa genotype and green testa is 36d～37d,31d～34d respectively; There are different at dry matter accumulation peak, the fast-growing end of the critical period, duration, growth rates of dry matter accumulation between all genotypes cultivars, the largest amount of dry matter accumulation were seen in about 56d after flowering, higher grain yield of genotypes duration of the rapid accumulation of dry matter accumulation per plant amounted to more than 40g.Dry matter accumulation of above 6 flower cluster section leaves is sum of dry matter accumulation below 5 flower cluster section leaves 2.24～4.85 times, the white type of large grain and high-yield genotypes relatively high, green testa genotype and low yield genotypes lower. Amount of transportation of leaf and grain dry matter weight in same position reached the significant level of positive correlation, relative amount of transportation of dry matter weight above 6 flower cluster node leaves>1 to 5 flower cluster node leaves>below the 1 flower cluster leaves, there showed the relative amount of dry matter of leaf due to operation yield potential of varieties vary. Relative amount of transportation dry matter of stalk to grain next to above 6 flower cluster section leaves, relative stalk amount of transportation dry matter to grain of green testa genotypes was significantly higher than that of white genotypes.accumulation of material of high yield and large grain genotypes stalks showed higher transfer efficiency 35d after flowering.Pod shell and the grain yield of dry matter transportation showed non-significant positive correlation. Pods shell and grain dry matter accumulation shows flower clusters of 1 to 5 as the main section, above 6 flower cluster section assistant, of which large grain and white testa genotype showed 1 to 5 flower clusters pod-setting type, small grain genotypes showed continuous pod-setting type, Large grain and green testa genotypes showed main assistant pod-setting type.The maximum value of soluble sugar contents is in the 20 days after anthsis of pod shells in different genotypes, then decreased with the increase of pod age to become stable 56d after flowering, the average decline in the value of soluble sugar during the period due to different varieties,1 flower cluster node> 5 flower cluster node> 10 flower cluster node. The starch accumulation maintain a high rate at the 21 d～42d after flowering,and reached the maximum at the 56d; there are insignificantly difference at 21d～28d after flowering, but there are significantly differences after 35days after flowering. The soluble protein content of leaf nodes are highest at 7d after flowering, the highest growth with leaf age decreased, yielding Qidou 2 and B410 late growth stage leaves showed higher soluble protein content. The protein accumulation rates showed large grain genotype faster than small grain beans, green testa faster than the white testa genotype at 21d～35d after flowering, the protein contents shows large grain higher than small genotypes, green testa higher than white genotype at 35d～42d after flowering, and small grain genotype also showed differences between genotypes.The leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs) in the flower cluster nodes showed relatively stable at 16d after flowering between different genotypes of faba bean, and decreased after 16d.The small grain and high yield type Qidou 2, and large grain B410 had relatively high leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Gs). The intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) at flower cluster node change smoothly during the flowering to maturity and show some differences between cultivars.After the large grain genotypes bean topped when 10 flower cluster section flowering, the effective number of branches, branch effective pod number increased, and grain weight, the protein and starch contents, the transportation of leaf dry matter were higher than control after topped, the leaf photosynthetic rate, transpiration rate, and stomatal conductance at each node was increased significantly, the duration of photosynthetic rate is also higher, but the intercellular CO2 concentration at each node was reduced, and the level of reducing is different between different cultivars.