Study on the Application of Hazard Analysis and Critical Control Point System (HACCP) in Ice Cream and Related Products Processing
|School||Nanjing Agricultural College|
|Keywords||Ice cream and related products HACCP GMP Allergic hazard Allergen|
In China, ice cream and related products have been changing from summer sunstroke prevention foods to leisure food. China has a potential market for the Ice cream and related products development. The government supervision examinations showed the quality wasn’t optimistic. In 2006, General Administration of Quality Supervision, Inspection and Quarantine (AQSIQ) selectively examinated 170 varieties of Ice cream, Ice cream bar, and Ice lolly products in 17 provinces and municipalities, and the qualified rate was 70.2%. It’s necessary to study how to ensure the food safety of frozen desserts and how to protect consumers.Hazard analysis and critical control point (HACCP) is a prevention system focused on food safety management which is widely used at food industries internationally. HACCP system isn’t an isolated system. It has to base on a series of prerequisite programs. Otherwise it will lapse. This thesis confirmed the following programs, Good Manufacturing Practice (GMP), Sanitation Standard Operation Procedure (SSOP), Facility Management Producedure, Supplier Management Procedure, Products Coding and Tracing Procedure, Consumer Safety and Quality Incident Management Procedure, Document Control Procedure, Training Awareness and Ability Management Procedure are prerequisite programs. The thesis gave some introduction on the prerequisite programs.Generally, HACCP system covers biological, chemical and physical hazards, and it doesn’t involve allergic hazard. Though the population of susceptible individuals is small, the allergic response can be serious for the susceptible individuals, even kill them. This thesis studied how to apply HACCP (involve biological, chemical, physical and allergic hazard) in Ice cream and related products production on the premise of that the requirements of prerequisite programs are met. The application of HACCP principles consists of the following tasks:Assemble HACCP team, Describe product, Identify Intended use, Construct Flow Diagram, On-site confirmation of flow diagram, List all potential hazards and conduct hazard analysis, Determine Critical Control Points (CCPs), Establish critical limit (CL) for each CCP, Establish corrective actions, Establish verification procedures. Establish documentation and record keeping. And then, implement HACCP plan. The four CCPs and their limitation are listed as follows:Raw material reception and its CL is from the suppliers audited and approved by the company. Pasteurization and its CL is 79℃,29seconds. Cleaning in Place (CIP) and its CL is the concentration of CIP detergent solution is 0.5%, detergent solution temperature is 75℃, and circle time is 10 minutes. Open Plant Cleaning (OPC), and its CL is the concentration of OPC detergent solution and disinfectant solution are 0.5% respectively, effect time are 20 minutes respectively.This thesis validated the way to remove milk protein residue in machines after producing ice cream mix and its products. The CIP rinse water, OPC rinse water, water ice mix and water ice products are negative on casein examination after conducting CIP of the equipments of mix, pasteurize, homogenize, aging and freezers, and after conducting OPC of filling and shaping equipments. So CIP and OPC can remove milk protein residue in machines. After conducting 3 to 6 times of water rinsing of the equipments of mix, pasteurize, homogenize instead of CIP, the end parts of rinse water have 18.6-56.2 ppm of casein, and the water ice mixes have 5.4～49.2 ppm of casein. So up to 6 times of water rinsing can’t remove milk protein residues in machines. The Coli form Count (CC) and Total Plate Count (TPC). of all mixes are within standard. The pathogen examination results of finished products are all negative, and heavy metal results of finished products are all within state standard. All these results verified the effective implementation of HACCP.Food companies must focus on "Safe by Design", and apply HACCP at innovation process, that is "Design HACCP". And HACCP turns into a true preventive system. "Design HACCP" can improve enterprise’s competition power and protect consumer safety.