Research on the Carpentry Work of the Hall in Residences of Ming and Qing Dynasties in Shanghai
|School||Shanghai Jiaotong University|
|Course||Architectural Design and Theory|
|Keywords||Shanghai Residences of Ming and Qing Dynasties Hall Carpentry Work Constitution Design System|
Beside the“Shikumen”buildings which have been the focus of Shanghai residences for a long time, the Ming and Qing residences also have wide distribution and large quantities. So, the study of Ming and Qing residences plays an important role not only in theory but also in practice. As a widespread building type, the hall in Ming and Qing residences can reflect the level of technological development and cultural connotation of aesthetics well. As the boutique of the residences, the halls have the characteristics of wide-application, important-status, fastidious-construction, and diversified forms. The carpentry work is the skeleton of halls, which has high technical and artistic value. The study of the carpentry work of halls contributes to further studies of the Ming and Qing residences in Shanghai.This article chooses to study 67 well-preserved halls which can be the representatives of halls in Ming and Qing residences, including Rectangular Beam Hall, Circular Beam Hall, Bending Rafter Hall, Gong Style Hall and Two-layer Hall. Based on the theory of Yingzaofayuan, this article tries to analyze the classification features, the constitution modes and the design rules by studying the aspects of classification and constitution system and the design system of hall. Then it compares them to the corresponding parts in Yingzaofayuan, drawing to further study of the evolution trace of literae humaniory and nosogeography. It is expected to complement the studies of the Ming and Qing residences in Shanghai, and enhance their status in order to lay the foundation for further study of the design methods of Jiangnan traditional architectures.This article is composed of six chapters. Chapter 1 provides introduction, which describes the status, significance and purpose of this study, and then defines the scope, contents and methods of the research.Chapter 2 describes the current situation of the halls in Ming and Qing residences in Shanghai, which contains 3 parts: the natural and social backgrounds, the historical evolution, and the current situation of the halls.Chapter 3 works over the halls in Yingzaofayuan. It studies the contents and the status of Yingzaofayuan, analyzes the classification and consititution system, and studies the design system by analyzing the ratio between wood components in Yingzaofayuan with the“wood cut theory”, which created in Modern Japan.Chapter 4 provides the classification and constitution system of the hall in Shanghai Ming and Qing residences. It investigates the 67 halls to put up the composition of overall layout, the constitution pattern of plane and profile, and the profile combination. Afterwards, it compares them to the counterparts of Yingzaofayuan to define the features of the carpentry work’s classification and constitution.Chapter 5 affords the design system of the halls in Ming and Qing Shanghai residences. It maps several well-preserved halls with typical Ming and Qing style, and analyzes the parameters to investigate the design system of the carpentry work drawing on the experience of Yingzaofayuan. Then, it compares the design system with the corresponding part in Yingzaofayuan in order to investigate the historical association of halls between Shanghai Ming and Qing residences and Jiangnan traditional architectures.Chapter 6 is the conclusion of the article.