Study on Bilingual Education in Tajikistan Primary and Middle Schools
|School||Xinjiang Normal University|
|Course||Linguistics and Applied Linguistics|
|Keywords||Bilingual Education Tajikistan Penjikent Primary and Middle Schools|
Tajikistan of Central Asian area, as one of the constituent republics of U.S.S.R., basically followed the bilingual education system of U.S.S.R. after independence. In order to gain a comprehensive understanding of the current bilingual education in both primary and secondary school in Tajikistan, language attitude, and how the teacher, the student, the family and the society influence and restrict students’bilingual learning, the study is conducted in Penjikent area, 300km northwest capital city of Tajikistan, Dushanbe. Altogether 242 primary schools and 47 bilingual teachers are involved in this study. All the materials and data are obtained by reviewing literature, attending classes, having interviews with teachers and students, and applying questionnaires.This thesis consists of five parts. The first part involves an introduction of the background, literature review of bilingual education both at home and abroad to enhance the significance of this study, the content, the approach to carry out this study, the difficulties and innovation of doing this research. The second part describes the historical background of bilingual education in Tajikistan, covering Tajikistan’s political and economic profile, multi-ethnic cultural background, evolution of language policy before and after independence, and an overview of primary and secondary education. The third part focuses on how the questionnaire of Penjikent primary and secondary bilingual education is designed, distributed and collected; on the basis of the data collected from the questionnaire, this part also demonstrates a detailed analysis of the languages used by the teacher and the student in this area, and their language attitude as well. Part four illustrates the influencing and restricting factors of bilingual education on primary and secondary schools in Tajikistan. The final part presents some enlightenments of Tajikistan bilingual education in primary and secondary schools on the bilingual education in China and Chinese language promotion in Tajikistan.The results from this study show that in the recent 2 decades, right after its independence, Tajikistan is subject to revival of national culture and constructing a nation-oriented state. It has been taking a series of moves as that of the legislation to promote and popularize Tajik language nationwide. At present, Tajik language teaching is strengthened in the country, as can be manifested in the number of schools, teachers, teaching quality and teaching program, to enhance its status as the national language. On the contrary, Russian language teaching is weakened to some extent. However, what can not be neglected is that the mass choice of language does not conform to the Government’s, due to the former giving priority to some practical consideration of academic development, occupation orientation, housing and promotion. Parents generally show their preference and a positive attitude to Tajik-Russian bilingual education, in the hope that their children may benefit more from bilingual education.