Academic Research on Marine Merchants in Qingdao during Qing Dynasty
|School||Ocean University of China|
|Keywords||Qingdao region marine merchant beans trade vessel maritime spirits|
Marine merchants are the important group in marine society. From Tang Dynasty to Qing Dynasty, marine trade have been always the most economical activity, and their activities of production and living have been influencing the history of other marine groups, even the whole marine society. Chinese marine merchants creat abundant intangible and tangible cultural heritage. Mining and combing these wealth is a important means that is us.eful to inheriting and expanding of chinese marine culture tradition. In addition, to research their survival state is to reseach history of social development in marine areas, but also further explore to a variety of social development constraints of marine areas. In this thesis, he mines local and others’maritime cultural resources by means of overview of trade condition, trade of goods, maritime belief, ships, case studies, etc, trying to recover merchants’survival states in the region.The maritime activities within and outside Jiaozhou Bay is very frequent in Qing dynasty. Merchants in Zhejiang, Fujian and Guangdong trade in Shandong after emperor Kangxi lifts the ban, while merchants’ footprints in Jiaozhou and Jimo are all over the Guandong, Jiangnan, Fujian and Guangdong area, even there are records of trafficking in goods to Japan in historical documents. There are jiaozhou, jinjiakou, Qingdaokou, nvgukou, etc. in Qingdao region. These ports export soybeans, soybean oil, dry powder, salt pork, herbs and other goods, and import grocery and cotton. Important maritime trade activities are trafficking Guandong food to Shandong and trafficking Shandong beans to jiangnan. Shandong beans’trafficking not promotes economic prosperity of Jiangnan town, but also makes Dengzhou, Jiaozhou merchants develope into a powerful business group in Liuhe Town and Shanghai.Marine merchants believe in maritime spirits, such as the Dragon King, matsu and so on in Qing Dynasty. Matsu is the most influential national marine protector. Tianhou temples are constructed by marine merchants along the coast in Shandong, which has greatly promoted the spread of Matsu belief in Shandong region. With the popularity of Mazu belief in coastal Shandong, The divine rank of Dragon King fall.Trafficking is the most important commercial activity of maritime groups. Seagoer inclues shachuan, ningchuan, fuchuan, dagualou, shanban and so on. Dagualou and shanban are civilian vessels of Shandong, which are anchored at Jinkou harbor. Ningbo beihao merchants drive ningchuan to trade between Shandong and jingnan. Shachuan is the main vessel of north-south freight. Ningbo merchants control shachua transports in Jingnan. There is dakalouzi in Jiaozhouwan, which is different from shachuan. "Jin Changsheng" was once known as "the first boat in Shandong". Fuchuan, called diaochuan, is the main vessel drived by Fujian merchants.Jinkou was once important port in Shandong before Yantai was opend. Jinkou merchants do business all over the word. There are well-known merchants, such as LiBinghe, YangZhijun, WangZhisheng, etc. They open businesshouse, such as Yongchun, Decheng and so on, which generally has the similar history of rise and fall. LiBinghe eatate, "丫" Sreet and the Tianhou Temple remain. "Notes on Liuhe Town" and "Tablet on Taicang banning sea port to calm down merchants " save the historical datas of beans from Shandong to Jiangnan and Jiaozhou merchants operating in the Liuhe Town. In the Kangxi and Qianlong period, Liuhe is the most important distribution center of Shandong beans. There are many Shandong businesshouse and they have strong power. In Liuhe Town, businesshouse and the middlemen is in interdependence. The local government dedicated "bonded-line" to facilitate the transaction. In addition, the businesshouse is also involved in local culture and social charity facilities’constructive. As the Liu River channel has been in blockage most businesshouse have moved to Shanghai at the end, of the Qing emperor Qianlong.