Assessment of Human Health Risks Posed by Water Contaminants and Consumption of Fish from the Drinking Water Source in Kaifeng City
|Keywords||Source of drinking water Ichthyophagous Health Risk Assessment Kaifeng|
Set up a water quality sampling points located in Kaifeng City drinking water sources upstream of the Yellow River, in Blackpool and Liu pool set 15 and 16 sampling points, set at a sampling inlet of a water plant in Kaifeng point, and in the water plant water sample collected three peripheral processing end at different times, the research object form \Fresh green shoots Erythroculter (Erythroculter dabryi) site acquisition in Blackpool and Liu pool three similar size fish samples. Which, watery ammonia nitrogen, volatile phenol, As, Cd, Pb, Cu, Zn, Mn, Ni and Cr6 content with the the green shoot Erythroculter muscle tissue Cu, Pb, Zn, Mn, Ni, As and Cd content analysis testing. Heavy metal bioconcentration factor of the fish were calculated and a preliminary study of Kaifeng City drinking water sources of drinking water, the health risks of exposure pathways such as bathing and fish-eating, draw the following conclusions: (1) \water - source water - peripheral water system \basically the same as with the source water and the higher the content on the source of water pollutants, the greater the peripheral water drop. Blackpool with willow water ammonia, Zn, Mn, Pb and Ni concentrations no statistically significant difference (p gt; 0.05), while the volatile phenol Cr6, Cu, As and Cd concentration were significantly different (p lt; 0.05). On source water and source water is a Grade III, the peripheral water belongs to the I Grade. Yellow River pollution levels have a major impact on the water quality of the water source. Compared with other water sources, heavy metals Cu, Pb, Zn, Ni and Cd content is low, but the high ammonia and volatile phenols. (2) the water estate fish green tip Erythroculter of muscle tissue Cu, Zn, Mn, As, Cd, Pb and Ni content range of to 1.61 ~ 2.13,16.26 ~ 22.65,0.38 ~ 0.49,0.03 ~ 0.05,0.03 ~ 0.05,0.22 ~ 0.31,0.14 ~ 0.22μg · g -1 sup>, highest content of Zn, Cu, followed by the level of the lowest Cd and As content, content order Zn gt; of Cu gt; Mn gt; Pb gt; Ni gt; Cd, As. The Blackpool and Liu pool green shoot Erythroculter occurred more significant enrichment of heavy metals, including Zn bio concentration factor, enrichment strongest. The BCF order Zn gt; Pb gt; Cd gt; of Cu gt; Ni gt; Mn gt; As. The Blackpool and willow the pool green shoot Erythroculter was no significant difference (p gt; 0.05). Heavy metal bioconcentration factor (3) fish-eating ways not yet caused a significant non-carcinogenic health risks of heavy metals in a single exposure. As the largest non-carcinogenic risks of fish-eating ways heavy metals, the contribution of the non-carcinogenic risk, the contribution rate of 28.86% to 41.66%. The piscivorous pathway to heavy metal THQ descending Blackpool order of As gt; Pb gt; Zn gt; of Cu gt; Cd gt; Ni gt; Mn; addition to THQCd gt; THQCu, the the willow pool and Blackpool consistent. Heavy metals in fish-eating ways the composite exposure on the human body does not result in significant non-carcinogenic health hazards, HIsF value 0.19 to 0.24. As enriched through the food chain of the human body more obvious carcinogenic risk in fish, fish-eating ways the TRAs mean of 3.30 × 10 -5 sup> to 3.58 × 10 -5 sup> . Therefore, arsenic is both fish-eating ways non-carcinogenic risk factor, but also caused a significant cancer risk. (4) drinking water pathway is the body's main route of exposure. Source water pollutant exposure descending order of ammonia gt; Cu gt; Zn gt; Mn gt; Cr6 gt; of As gt; the volatile phenol gt; Ni gt; Pb gt; the Cd; peripheral water compared to ammonia gt; Mn gt; As gt; Zn gt; Cu gt; Ni gt; Pb gt; volatile phenol gt; Cd gt; Cr6. Source water and the peripheral water both 10 pollutants Total hazard index did not exceed 1. Non-carcinogenic hazard index from big to small source water order of As gt; Cr6 gt; Cd gt; Pb gt; of Cu gt; Ni gt; Mn gt; the Zn, peripheral water compared with As gt; Cd gt; Pb gt; Ni gt; Cu gt; Mn gt; Zn gt; Cr6. Drinking water pathway exists a significant cancer risk, bathing pathway is not obvious. Whether drinking or bathing, the peripheral water pollutant health risks than the source water. Arsenic is a major carcinogen, carcinogenic risk contribution rate from 98.78% to 99.07%. (5) the cumulative health risk evaluation results show that the fish-eating, drinking and bathing ways pollutants composite exposure of the population exposed to significant non-carcinogenic health risk not yet HI index 3.91 × 10 -3 sup > ~ 5.84 × 10 -1 sup>, HIs index between 7.64 × 10 -1 sup>. Drinking water pathway is the most important non-oncogenic pathways and oncogenic pathways, the contribution rate of 72.76% and 86.57%, respectively, followed by fish-eating ways, Bath ways little risk. As is the non-cancer risk factors, the most important contribution to HIs 76.35%. Arsenic exposed to cumulative carcinogenic risk in three ways to of 2.64 × -4 sup> heavier carcinogenic risk should be taken seriously enough. In short, the arsenic is the biggest health risks of substance, is the most important risk factor for multi-channel exposure to carcinogenic and non-carcinogenic.